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76 Evolution News Articles
for July 2019
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7-17-19 Gum disease treatment for Alzheimer’s lowers signs of inflammation
Encouraging results have been announced from a small trial of a new kind of treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, which targets gum disease bacteria. Trial participants showed improvements in certain molecules in their blood and spinal fluid, says Cortexyme, the US firm developing the therapy. However, the company has not shown yet that the treatment can reduce the severity of dementia. “It isn’t enough to get excited about, but it’s enough to say this hypothesis is interesting,” says Carol Routledge of the charity Alzheimer’s Research UK. The new approach is at odds with decades of thinking about Alzheimer’s. It was believed that the condition is caused by a build-up of toxic plaques in the brain made of a protein called amyloid. But numerous therapies that blocked amyloid failed to halt progression of the disease in trials, and many researchers now think the protein may be a side effect of Alzheimer’s, not the root cause. Cortexyme thinks that Alzheimer’s may be due to bacteria called Porphyromonas gingivalis – better known for causing gum disease – somehow getting into the brain and sparking inflammation. The microbe and its toxins have been found at somewhat higher levels in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s, and can trigger amyloid build-up if put into the brains of mice. Cortexyme has developed an oral medicine called COR388 that can block the activity of toxins released by the bacteria. Last year, the firm carried out short trials in healthy volunteers and nine people with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease, six of whom got twice-daily capsules, while the rest got a placebo version. After four weeks, there were small improvements in two kinds of tests for dementia severity for those who got the medicine, but these were too small to be classed as statistically significant. Cortexyme says that is because the trial was designed as a safety test and was too small to show efficacy.

7-17-19 This gene may help worms live longer, but not healthier
A surprising trade-off could have implications for anti-aging therapies. Long life and good health don’t always go hand in hand. makes the worms more susceptible to infection and stress, researchers report July 17 in Nature Communications. That’s unusual; longevity-promoting genes generally help organisms deal with stress, says Arjumand Ghazi, a geneticist who studies aging at the University of Pittsburgh. Ghazi and colleagues had previously found that a gene called TCER-1 increases life span and is needed for Caenorhabditis elegans worms to produce eggs and healthy offspring. She and colleagues expected that deleting the gene would make the worms prone to infections. Instead, worms missing TCER-1 fought off a bacterial infection for nearly twice as long as worms with an intact gene, says Francis Amrit, a molecular biologist in Ghazi’s lab. “When I first saw that, I thought I’d made a mistake,” Amrit says. The team also found that worms that made more of the TCER-1 protein than usual were able to overcome declines in fertility caused by exposure to a pathogen, but succumbed to infection faster. Those results indicate that when functioning normally, the gene helps suppress immune responses so more resources can be used for reproduction. “In a lot of ways, reproduction and longevity are opposite one another, and this is underscored by these findings,” says Coleen Murphy, a biologist at Princeton University not involved in the work. Worms missing TCER-1 were also resistant to other types of environmental stress, such as heat and radiation. It took about 95 hours for worms missing the gene to suffer paralysis caused by clumping of an Alzheimer’s disease protein, while paralysis started at about 33 hours in worms with the gene. Those advantages continued only as long as worms were of egg-laying age. Older C. elegans were equally susceptible to infection or stress regardless if they had the gene. All together, the results indicate that TCER-1 helps regulate survival — balancing stress responses, reproduction and life span, Amrit says.

7-17-19 Elon Musk's plans for mind-controlled gadgets: what we know so far
Elon Musk’s brain-computer interface company Neuralink has finally broken its silence. Since the company was formed in 2016, it has kept its plans secret, but in a presentation on Tuesday night it showed off its vision and explained what the firm has done so far. At the event, the company unveiled a brain-computer interface – a technology that allows machines to read brain activity. Neuralink says its device will have about 3000 surgically implanted electrodes, each of which will be able monitor some 1000 neurons at a time. The electrodes will be embedded in around 100 extremely thin threads, between 4 and 6 micrometres wide, which is much less than the width of a hair. The threads collect the measurements from the electrodes and will then be gathered through a small incision behind the ear, where a chip will sit to analyse the results. The information will then be sent via bluetooth to a smartphone app. Neuralink says the interface could be used for everything from helping people with paralysis to control prostheses to allowing people to directly interact with artificial intelligence: “This is going to sound pretty weird, but achieve a sort of symbiosis with artificial intelligence,” said Musk at the event. At the moment, we rely on an interface with technology such as our laptops that is slowed by our fingers or our eyes. Inserting a chip into our brains to speed things up will be key to overcoming that, said Musk. There is still a long way to go. Many research groups are working on brain-computer interfaces and there has been some progress made in recent years.

7-17-19 Elon Musk reveals brain-hacking plans
NeuraLink, a company set up by Elon Musk to explore ways to connect the human brain to a computer interface, has applied to US regulators to start trialling its device on humans. DThe system has been tested on a monkey that was able to control a computer with its brain, according to Mr Musk. The firm said it wanted to focus on patients with severe neurological conditions. But ultimately Mr Musk envisions a future of "superhuman cognition". The device the firm has developed consists of a tiny probe containing more than 3,000 electrodes attached to flexible threads - thinner than a human hair - which can then monitor the activity of 1,000 neurons. The advantage of this system, according to the firm, is that it would be able to target very specific areas of the brain, which would make it surgically safer. It would also be able to analyse recordings using machine learning, which would then work out what type of stimulation to give a patient. NeuraLink did not explain how the system translated brain activity or how the device was able to stimulate brain cells. "It's not like suddenly we will have this incredible neural lace and will take over people's brains," Mr Musk said during his presentation. "It will take a long time." But he said, for those who choose it, the system would ultimately allow for "symbiosis with artificial intelligence".

7-16-19 People who think they’re overweight are more at risk for depression
The stigma around being overweight or obese may contribute to the link between weight and depression, and this extends even to people who have a healthy weight but perceive themselves as being overweight. “This fear of social devaluation resulting from perceiving oneself as being part of a stigmatised group may threaten core psychological needs of belonging and acceptance, and in turn damage mental health,” writes a team of researchers in a study led by Ashleigh Haynes at the University of Liverpool in the UK. She and her colleagues reviewed results from 32 studies conducted since 1991 on the link between perceptions of being overweight or obese and symptoms of depression. These studies were conducted in the US, the Netherlands, South Korea, China, Hong Kong and Japan, and included sample sizes ranging from 106 to more than 109,000. In these studies, participants rated their own perception of their weight in categories such as very or slightly underweight, about right or normal, slightly overweight, and very overweight or obese. Their objective weight was calculated using body mass index. These studies measured depressive symptoms by self-report on questionnaires, through clinical interviews or by diagnosis. Overall, when compared with those who thought their weight was about right or normal, participants who perceived themselves as overweight had higher odds of having depressive symptoms and were at higher risk of having suicidal thoughts – as were those whose BMI categorised them as overweight.

7-16-19 High levels of anxiety can slow down your reaction times
High levels of anxiety can strain a person’s ability to control their attention, and this effect has been shown to increase with age, according to an analysis of dozens of studies. Ran Shi and his colleagues at the University of Sydney in Australia combined the results of 58 studies that measured the attention and anxiety level of a combined 8292 children and adults, who either self-reported their anxiety or demonstrated it through behavioural tests. These studies examined various components of attention control. These included inhibition, which involves preventing attention from being pulled towards irrelevant stimuli; switching, which involves keeping attention focused on a relevant task; and updating, which involves evaluating how relevant new information is and overwriting old information. Across all studies, Shi and his team found that overall attention control was significantly worse in people who are more anxious. Highly anxious groups, whether or not they had been clinically diagnosed, had similar deficits in attention control. There were significant decreases in performance on inhibition and switching tasks, but no such effect seen for updating. These attentional deficits lowered anxious participants’ response times but did not significantly affect their accuracy in tests. They also found that the older someone was, the more likely they were to experience these attention control deficits. “The current finding that age was able to predict the effect of anxiety on attention control, especially when young children were included in the analysis, provides preliminary evidence that anxiety impairs the development of attention control processes,” the team writes in their study.

7-16-19 Personalised cancer treatments are becoming more common in the UK
Cancer treatment is becoming more precise through personalised therapies. A survey of more than 1000 people with cancer found that over a third had received genetically targeted drug treatments or immunotherapy. “Going back 20 years, the vast majority of cancer patients who had treatment for their disease were on traditional, one-size-fits-all chemotherapy – with targeted drugs practically unknown, and immunotherapy the stuff of science fiction,” said Rajesh Chopra at the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) in London, in a statement. The survey of 1064 people, all of whom received cancer treatments from the ICR between 4 March and 15 April 2019, suggests that trend is changing. Overall, 32 per cent of the respondents said they had received either a targeted drug therapy, immunotherapy or both – with nearly a quarter having had targeted drug therapy and 11 per cent receiving immunotherapy. The use of these more precise therapies was particularly high for people who were treated for melanoma or leukaemia. Among those treated for melanoma, 66 per cent said they had received immunotherapy while just 5 per cent had undergone chemotherapy. For those with leukaemia, 53 per cent received targeted drugs while 43 per cent had chemotherapy. This may be due to good progress in developing targeted treatments for these two cancers. Pancreatic, liver, oesophageal and brain cancer haven’t had as many new drugs or therapies developed in recent years.

7-16-19 Ancient flood shows some dinosaurs nested in colonies like birds
An 80-million-year-old nesting site found in the Gobi desert in Mongolia confirms that some dinosaurs nested in colonies like birds. It consists of at least 15 clutches of eggs laid during the same season and buried by a flood. Several other dinosaur nesting sites with multiple clutches have been discovered, so it has long been suspected that some species nested together, as many birds do today. However, at these sites it is not clear that all the clutches were laid during the same season – they could instead be a result of dinosaurs returning to the same site year after year. The Mongolian site, discovered in 2011, is unique in that there is clear evidence that all the eggs were laid during the same season, say Kohei Tanaka at the University of Tsukuba and his colleagues. Each clutch at the site contains between 3 and 30 eggs that are 13 centimetres wide on average. They appear to have been buried in soil or organic material to keep them warm – as megapode birds and some crocodiles do today – rather than being brooded by the parents. No embryos have been found inside the eggs, but based on similar finds the team thinks they were laid by therizinosaurs – feathered dinosaurs with massive claws on their forearms, which they may have used to pull down branches to feed on the leaves. Many of the eggs are partly eroded, but ten that are complete have a large opening in the upper half – thought to be the hatching window through which the young therizinosaurs clambered out. The team think at least 60 per cent of the eggs hatched successfully. “We do not know the fate of the rest,” says Tanaka. The lack of any sign of predation suggests the adults guarded the nests – if the eggs were abandoned, the presence of so many eggs would be expected to attract many predators.

7-15-19 Sexual images are just as arousing for women as they are for men
Women’s brains react to pornography just as much as men’s, challenging the widespread belief that men get more turned on by visual stimuli. The finding comes from a review of 61 brain scanning studies that showed men and women pornographic pictures or films as they lay in a brain scanner. Although there is wide variation in behaviour among both sexes, men are usually seen as being more interested in sex. In questionnaire-based research, the responses suggest that men find erotic images more appealing than women do. This is often interpreted as women requiring more of an emotional connection before they become aroused. This difference was seemingly confirmed with the advent of brain-scanning studies, with some finding that men’s brains are more responsive to pornography. But the field of brain scanning has been criticised in recent years for being prone to using methods that can lead to spurious results, such as drawing conclusions from small differences that could have arisen by chance. So Hamid Noori at the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics in Tübingen, Germany, and colleagues analysed the results from all the brain-scanning studies that have tried to answer this question, looking at the whole brain and covering nearly 2000 people. Overall it found no difference between men and women. “There are differences in behaviour – the number of men going to porn sites is roughly 80 per cent of the consumers,” says Noori. “But men and women respond the same way at the brain level to visual sexual stimuli. What we do with it afterwards is what brings the difference.” Women may watch less pornography because it is more stigmatised, says David Ley, a writer and sex therapist at outpatient centre New Mexico Solutions. He says the study shows “women can be just as visual as men, if they are allowed to be”.

7-15-19 You're less empathetic when you've been drinking heavily
Drinking more alcohol may make you less empathetic, according to a study that measured empathetic responses and moral judgment among people at different levels of intoxication. Kathryn Francis at the University of Plymouth in the UK and her colleagues recruited 48 people aged 18 to 42, and split them into three groups which drank either one of two strengths of vodka mixed with lemonade or a placebo of lemonade with alcohol sprayed around the edge of the glass. They measured the blood alcohol level of each group. Those who drank the high-strength drink – which contained twice as much alcohol as the low strength – reached a median of 0.03 per cent. Those in the low-alcohol group had a median of 0.01 per cent. For comparison, the drink-drive limit in England and Wales is 0.08 per cent. After 20 minutes, each person did a series of tests. In the first, they were shown pictures of people with sad, neutral or happy expressions and were asked to say how they felt about each. People in the high-alcohol group reported feeling more positively towards sad faces and more negatively towards happy faces. These inappropriate responses support the theory that alcohol impairs components of empathy, the team says. The participants were then presented with images of painful situations – for example, a person cutting vegetables with a knife and also slicing their hand – and asked to rate the intensity of pain they thought the person was experiencing. Alcohol dosage didn’t affect ability to appropriately rate pain. The final test was similar to the famous Trolley problem. The participants wore virtual reality headsets and were placed in the so-called footbridge dilemma, where they had a choice of sacrificing one person to derail a train headed for a footbridge with five people on it. Lowered empathy would suggest that someone would make the more utilitarian choice – doing the most good for the most people and sending one person to their doom to save five. But alcohol consumption didn’t appear to affect moral judgment, with people in all three groups choosing to save the most people possible. “This may suggest that it is not only the un-empathic facets of traits such as psychopathy that drive utilitarian moral decision-making but perhaps other facets,” the team writes.

7-15-19 Anorexia is a metabolic disorder as well as a psychiatric one
Anorexia nervosa isn’t just a psychiatric condition – it is a metabolic one, too, according to a genetic study of around 72,500 people. The findings help to explain some of the symptoms of anorexia, and could help to shape future treatments. Anorexia affects between 0.9 and 4 per cent of women and 0.3 per cent of men, but is still poorly understood. “Anorexia has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder,” says Cynthia Bulik at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. “We’re not very good at treating anorexia. There’s no medication, and that’s probably because we don’t understand the underlying causes.” Previous research has found that genetic factors, as well as environmental ones, can increase a person’s risk of anorexia. To investigate, Bulik and her colleagues compared the genomes of just under 17,000 people with anorexia with those of 55,500 people who didn’t have the condition. The team used a technique that applies thousands of markers to the genome, and compares these markers across all the volunteers. “It points you to where in the genome the differences lie,” says Bulik. The search pinpointed eight locations across the genome that seem to play a role in anorexia. But this is likely to represent only a tiny fraction of all the genetic factors involved in the condition, says Bulik. “It’s a complex trait, so we expect lots of genes to each have a small to moderate effect,” she says. The researchers compared their results with similar genetic studies of other traits, ranging from other psychiatric conditions to weight, education and personality. They found that anorexia seems to be correlated with obsessive compulsive disorder and depression, suggesting that these all share genetic factors. This makes sense, says Bulik – people with these conditions often show similar symptoms.

7-15-19 Targeting mitochondria in neurons may help relieve severe forms of MS
People with the more severe forms of multiple sclerosis are known to have dysfunctional mitochondria in their neurons. Altering the make-up of spinal fluid could be a new way to address this, and may one day help treat the disorder. Because the brain is bathed in cerebrospinal fluid, it makes sense to see whether MS can be treated by altering this fluid, said Patrizia Casaccia at The City University of New York in a statement. To test this approach, she and her colleagues took spinal fluid from people who experience intermittent attacks of MS symptoms – known as relapsing or remitting MS – and 29 people with more severe, progressive forms of the condition. The team then put rat neurons in these spinal fluid samples and used a fluorescent tracer to see how the mitochondria in those neutrons behaved. Mitochondria produce energy, and are known as the powerhouses of cells. When the team videoed the rat mitochondria, they saw they elongated when exposed to fluid from people with progressive MS. They didn’t see the same thing when in fluid from people with relapsing MS. These elongated mitochondria produced less energy than normal ones, eventually killing the cell. Previous research has indicated that mitochondria elongate in an effort to produce more energy when there is more demand or less glucose available. The team found that the spinal fluid from people with progressive MS had raised levels of ceramides, a type of fatty acid. Exposing neurons to ceramides turned out to be enough to make their mitochondria elongate in the same way as when exposed to spinal fluid from people with progressive MS.

7-15-19 Regulating e-cigarette flavours may prompt some people to smoke more
A survey of younger people suggests that placing certain restrictions on e-cigarettes could prompt some to use tobacco products more. E-cigarette use has been on the rise among US teenagers, and it isn’t clear whether that may lead to more young people taking up traditional cigarettes. In the past few years, the European Union has enacted legislation to limit the concentration of nicotine in e-cigarettes, while the US Food and Drug Administration extended its authority over tobacco products to include e-cigarettes. To understand what effect possible restrictions would have on e-cigarette users in the US, Lauren Pacek at Duke University in North Carolina and her colleagues conducted a survey of 240 people aged 18 to 29. All the participants reported that they had used both e-cigarettes and traditional tobacco cigarettes for more than three months. They asked the group to respond to three hypothetical scenarios: one in which e-cigarettes in the US are only nicotine-free, one where they are only available in tobacco or menthol flavours and one in which users can’t modify or customise vaping devices to alter the nicotine dose. About 47 per cent of respondents said that if regulations eliminated the nicotine in e-cigarettes, they wouldn’t use them as much and would increase their use of tobacco cigarettes. About 22 per cent said they would make the same changes if regulations limited their ability to customise their devices. And 17 per cent said that if flavours were limited to tobacco or menthol, they would decrease their use of e-cigarettes and smoke more tobacco.

7-14-19 Healthy living lowers chances of dementia even if genetic risk is high
Pursuing a healthier lifestyle reduces your chance of developing dementia whatever your genetic risk of being affected by the condition, according to new research. “In a sense we [already] knew what is good for the heart seems to be good for the head,” says David Llewellyn at the University of Exeter. “But that seems to be the case regardless of genetics.” The new research should encourage people not to be fatalistic if they have, say, a family history of dementia. “One of the concerns is if you tell people to live healthily to reduce your risk of dementia, some people think they will probably develop dementia anyway because of their genetics,” says Llewellyn. Around 196,000 people aged 60 and over with genetic data in the UK Biobank were followed for eight years, during which time 1769 developed dementia. The researchers grouped people into three levels of genetic risk for dementia – low, intermediate and high – using previous work on associations between genetic variants and Alzheimer’s disease, a type of dementia. The people’s lifestyles were classed as favourable, intermediate and unfavourable. Someone was considered to live favourably if they did not smoke, exercised more than 150 minutes a week, had no more than one drink a day for women and two for men, and ate at least four of seven food groups including fruit, vegetables and wholegrains. Llewellyn and his colleagues discovered that people with a high genetic risk of dementia had a 32 per cent lower chance of developing the condition if they maintained a ‘favourable’ lifestyle compared to an ‘unfavourable’ one.

7-12-19 Four ways to sharpen memories

  1. Take a quick walk. Need to retain information from a book or a meeting? Get moving—because activity gets blood flowing and helps the brain create lasting memories.
  2. Think in pictures. Humans excel at remembering images, so invent visuals—the odder the better—when you need to remember a name, a password, or an item on a shopping list. Need to pick up milk? Imagine your car with milk spilling out the windows. Fear leaving your purse? Jump on one foot as you set it down; that’ll imprint the memory.
  3. Create a ‘memory palace.’ To remember a series of items or chores, picture walking through your home and finding each item in a different room. When you need the memories, just imagine retracing your steps.
  4. Review. The best way to commit something to memory—a favorite recipe, say—is to revisit it for a few minutes each day over a span of five or six days.

7-12-19 A parasite in communal pools
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has warned that cryptosporidium, a fecal parasite that can infest swimming pools and water playgrounds, is on the rise. The parasite—more commonly known as crypto—causes cryptosporidiosis, which can give healthy adults watery diarrhea for up to three weeks. Children, pregnant women and others with compromised immune systems can suffer even worse effects. The CDC says the number of crypto cases increased by an average of 12.8 percent a year from 2009 to 2017, with 7,465 people in that period falling ill. More than a third of cases were from “recreational water” facilities such as swimming pools and water parks; the parasite can survive for more than a week in well-chlorinated water. To halt crypto’s spread, the CDC recommends that children shouldn’t go into the water within two weeks of having diarrhea. “We want to keep crypto out of the pool in the first place,” study co-author Michele Hlavsa tells USA Today. “The way we do that is not to swim or let our kid swim when we’re sick with diarrhea.”

7-12-19 The end of cervical cancer?
The HPV vaccine has been much more effective than predicted, scientists have found—so much so that it could eliminate cervical cancer altogether. Human papillomavirus, a sexually transmitted disease, is the leading cause of cervical cancer. Researchers examined 40 studies of HPV infections and associated symptoms, covering 60 million people in 14 high-income countries that adopted the vaccine—typically administered to girls around age 12—after its introduction in 2006. They found that the strains of HPV most likely to cause cervical cancer decreased by 83 percent over that period among girls ages 13 to 19, and by 66 percent among those ages 20 to 24. Cases of precancerous cervical lesions fell by 51 percent among girls ages 15 to 19, and by 31 percent among women ages 20 to 24. Genital warts, another potential consequence of HPV, also fell sharply. The vaccine hasn’t been available long enough for there to be meaningful data on its effect on cancer rates, but the researchers expect similarly sharp declines. Lead author Mélanie Drolet, from Laval University in Canada, tells NBCNews.com that the findings are “a first sign that vaccination could eventually lead to the elimination of cervical cancer as a public health problem.”

7-12-19 Our ancestors’ big bird meal
Early modern humans may have shared their world with a giant ostrich-like bird that stood nearly 12 feet tall and weighed almost as much as a polar bear. Scientists have long known that similarly sized birds once roamed ancient Madagascar, New Zealand, and Australia. But a fossilized 15-inch femur bone found in a cave in Crimea shows that giant birds also lived in Europe. The bone is thought to be 1.5 million to 1.8 million years old, suggesting that these colossal avians—Pachystruthio dmanisensis—may have been around when Homo erectus first reached the continent 1.2 million years ago. If so, they would have been a valuable source of meat, bones, feathers and eggshells for our distant ancestors. The bird was flightless, but likely quick on its feet: The modern ostrich can run at 43 miles per hour. “The Taurida cave network was only discovered last summer,” study author Nikita Zelenkov, of the Russian Academy of Sciences, tells ScienceDaily.com. “There may be much more to the site that will teach us about Europe’s distant past.”

7-12-19 Combining two cancer drugs could help slow growth of tumours
Sometimes two cancer drugs are better than one. The length of time that a breast cancer treatment continues to work could be extended by delivering it alongside a lung cancer medicine that stops tumour cells from developing resistance. So far the strategy has been shown to work in mice and on cancer cells in the lab – but the researchers say it should move relatively quickly into tests on women with breast cancer, because both medicines are already in use. The breast cancer medicine, called palbociclib, is one of the newer “targeted” cancer drugs that work by interfering with a specific tumour molecule rather than just killing all rapidly dividing cells like chemotherapy does. In this case it blocks the function of two proteins that promote cell division. But breast cancers usually develop mutations that mean they become resistant to this treatment within a few months and start growing again, says Paul Workman of The Institute of Cancer Research in London. His team found that cancer cells do this by turning on an alternative molecular pathway to cell division. This can be blocked by the lung cancer medicine, called crizotinib. Tumours implanted in mice treated with the combination grew at about two-thirds the rate of those in mice given either of the treatments separately. Although palbociclib is so far only used against breast cancer, the researchers found that the two-drug combo was also effective against other kinds of tumours, including those from the lungs and bowel, suggesting the strategy could be applied more widely. “Because we already know they’re safe and effective we can proceed more quickly to a combination study,” says Workman. “We would be hoping to start trials in patients in the next 18 months.”

7-12-19 People in China consume twice the recommended daily limit of salt
People in China consume 10 grams of salt a day on average, twice the amount recommended by the World Health Organization, and over the past four decades adults in China have had among the highest salt consumption in the world. This trend was seen in a review of dozens of studies published since 1981. The review also found that consumption of potassium, which can counteract sodium’s effect on blood pressure, is less than half the recommended amount in both adults and children in China. “High blood pressure in childhood tracks into adulthood, leading to cardiovascular disease,” said Monique Tan at Queen Mary University of London in a statement. “If you eat more salt whilst you are young, you are more likely to eat more salt as an adult, and to have higher blood pressure. These incredibly high salt, and low potassium, figures are deeply concerning for the future health of the Chinese population.” Tan and her colleagues reviewed 70 studies published between 1981 and 2016 which included sodium and potassium levels from urine tests of more than 26,000 adults, and 900 children. These samples were collected over a 24-hour period to more accurately track sodium and potassium levels than data collected by self-reported diet surveys or estimates from a single urine sample. The review revealed that salt intake in China has been consistently high since the 1980s, with regional differences across the country. In Northern China, salt intake is among the highest in the world, with adults consuming 11.2 grams a day, though intake has been decreasing over the last 40 years. That may be due to less reliance on pickled foods as fresh vegetables have become more available, and government programs to increase awareness of the recommended amount of sodium, Tan and her colleagues say.

7-11-19 World’s top personality test doesn’t really work – should we ditch it?
Personality tests are used by researchers, employers and even to shape policy, but a new study has found that the most widely-used test of personality doesn’t seem work for people in low- and middle-income countries. Meanwhile, another study has found that even in Western countries, it may only work for specific age groups. So why are we still using it? The “Big Five” personality traits are openness to experiences, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. The theory goes that all human personality traits fall into one of these categories. They tend to be measured using questionnaires that ask people how much certain statements describe them, such as “I have lots of ideas”. Since it was developed in the 1980s, this model has become the standard way of measuring personality. It has been used in multiple studies to link personality to income, job outcomes, education level, wellbeing, and even mortality, and companies use it in recruitment. “Policy makers seem to care a lot about this, and more and more so,” says Karen Macours at the Paris School of Economics in France. “So we want to make sure that it actually works.” But when Macours and her colleagues looked at survey results across 23 low- and middle-income countries, they found that it didn’t. A set of questions developed to test for a specific trait, such as conscientiousness, would be expected to give similar scores in any individual. But that didn’t happen across the 23 countries studied. There are plenty of reasons why this might be the case. A person’s culture could influence the way they describe themselves, and differences in language could play a role. The first Big Five tests were developed from an English dictionary search of adjectives that could be used to describe personality. Perhaps not everything translates.

7-11-19 French healthcare will stop paying for homeopathic treatment in 2021
France’s national healthcare system will stop reimbursing patients for homeopathic treatments beginning in 2021, health minister Agnès Buzyn told Le Parisien newspaper on 9 July.This comes after a national study by French medical and drug experts concluded in March that there is no evidence that homeopathic remedies work apart from a potential placebo effect. The French National Authority for Health also found in June that homeopathic remedies had “not scientifically demonstrated sufficient effectiveness to justify a reimbursement”. Buzyn said refunds for these treatments will reduced from 30 per cent to 15 per cent by January 2020, and ultimately phased out the next year. According to a joint statement by the French national academies of doctors and pharmacists, an estimated 72 per cent of French people believe in the benefits of homeopathy and 52 per cent use homeopathic treatments. In 2018, French social security refunded €126.8 million for homeopathic medicines out of a total of €20 billion in patient reimbursements, according to official figures. In Britain, the National Health Service took a similar tack in 2017, ending prescriptions of homeopathic treatments. At the time, NHS England’s chief executive Simons Stevens said homeopathy is “at best a placebo and a misuse of scarce NHS funds”.

7-11-19 Hear what music would have sounded like at Stonehenge 4000 years ago
. Stonehenge was the ultimate venue for ceremonies and rituals when it was built more than 4000 years ago. But what did they sound like? Now a 1:12 scale model of the site, with the stones in their original positions, reveals the surprising acoustic qualities of the monument. Trevor Cox at the University of Salford, UK, has long been interested in acoustic archaeology – what ancient places would have sounded like. Many of Stonehenges stones have now fallen over or been removed, so Cox and his colleagues decided to find out how sound would have carried across the original 157 stones of the site in 2200 BC. To do this, they used a technique used to predict the acoustics of new concert halls, which involves building a mini model of the site. Using precise laser scans of stones of the ancient monument, the team 3D-printed and moulded a scaled-down version of Stonehenge. In the mini-model, the tallest of the actual stones is a mere 60 centimetres. To test the reverberation, sounds had to be blasted at 12 times their frequency, into the ultrasound range. So what did Stonehenge sound like? Even though there are large gaps between the stones and no roof “there’s a sense of being in a room,” says Cox. “You’d think that the sound would just disappear to the heavens, but there are enough stones horizontally that the sound keeps bouncing back and forth so you get this reverberance. You think it would all disappear but it doesn’t.” The tests showed that reverberation lasted 0.6 seconds. “This makes the voice sound more powerful,” says Cox. To modern-day humans, used to being in concrete or brick buildings, these reverberations might not seem that unusual, he says. “But to our prehistoric ancestors it would have been very remarkable.” Despite this, it’s unlikely that the buildings would have been designed for their acoustics. “But would the people have exploited the acoustics? Or course they would have done. But we will never know for sure,” says Cox.

7-11-19 An ancient bird found encased in amber had a bizarrely long toe
Extended digits might have helped the critter snag food in hard-to-reach places. There once was a little bird, smaller than a sparrow, that lived about 99 million years ago. And it had a freakishly long toe. Researchers found the ancient bird’s right leg and foot preserved in a chunk of amber. Its third digit is 9.8 millimeters long, about 41 percent longer than its second-longest digit — and 20 percent longer than its entire lower leg. This foot morphology is unique among any known bird species, whether modern or Mesozoic, the team reports online July 11 in Current Biology. Although it’s not clear what purpose the extra-long toe served, the digit may have helped the bird find food in hard-to-reach places, such as through a hole in a tree. The team, led by paleontologist and frequent amber-fossil finder Lida Xing of the China University of Geosciences in Beijing, compared the toe size ratios of the fossilized bird with those of 20 other birds that lived during Mesozoic, the era that spans between 252 million and 66 million years ago, as well as with toe size ratios of 62 living species. Although some modern tree-dwelling birds do have elongated third digits, none of the other birds living or extinct have quite such a dramatic difference in toe sizes, the team found. Determining the bird to be a new species, the team named it Elektorornis chenguangi — using the prefix elektor, meaning amber in Greek, and suffix ornis, meaning bird; and with a nod to Chen Guang, the curator at the Hupoge Amber Museum in Tengchong City, China. E. chenguangi was a member of a group of toothed, clawed birds called enantiornithines that died out along with nonavian dinosaurs about 66 million years ago. Like most enantiornithines, the tiny E. chenguangi was probably a tree-dweller, and that lengthy digit may have helped the bird to grasp on to tree branches and limbs — in addition to possibly giving it a leg up in feeling around for food.

7-11-19 Unknown species of lizard found inside a gliding dinosaur's stomach
A near complete fossil of a lizard has been found inside the stomach of a microraptor, a kind of feathered dinosaur that lived around 100 million years ago. The lizard must have been swallowed whole shortly before the microraptor died and was fossilised. It was swallowed head first, in the same way that many living birds and reptiles swallow prey. The lizard turns out to be a new species and has been named Indrasaurus wangi by Jingmai O’Connor at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in Beijing and her colleagues. The name refers to a Vedic legend in which the god Indra was swallowed by a dragon during a great battle. Microraptors, first discovered two decades ago, looked very bird-like apart from their teeth but had feathers on their legs as well as their arms, and were capable of gliding and maybe even powered flight, says O’Connor. “This is an independent origin of flight separate from birds,” she says. “It flew with four wings.” Many researchers think they were tree climbers, but O’Connor disagrees. “I think microraptor was not a tree climber but rather lived on the ground but that’s controversial,” she says. “The Jehol where they lived was a forested lake environment.” This is the fourth microraptor fossil found with identifiable stomach contents, so we know they fed on mammals, birds, fish as well as lizards. Other studies have shown that at least some of these animals had black feathers. The microraptor and lizard are the latest of a treasure trove of fossils to emerge from northeastern China. Here a series of volcanic eruptions between 130 and 120 million killed many animals. Some were entombed in ash at the bottom of lakes and exquisitely preserved.

7-10-19 Babies point at objects because they really want to touch them
Why do babies point? The reason the behaviour kicks in across all human cultures when children are between 9 and 14 months old hasn’t been entirely clear before, but researchers now believe they have the answer: touch. The finding could aid understanding of child development and the evolution of language. Some experts have suggested that pointing begins with reaching to grasp something. But there is good evidence that this is unlikely, says Cathal O’Madagain at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. “When reaching, [infants] hav Instead, O’Madagain and a European team suggest the unique phenomenon originates from attempts to touch things in an exploratory manner with a fingertip. They undertook three experiments with groups aged 18 months to adulthood, and they argue the results back up the hypothesis. The first test revealed that we don’t necessarily angle a pointing finger in a way that will direct another observer’s attention towards the object we are pointing at. Rather, a virtual line runs from our eye through our fingertip and towards the object, as if we were reaching to touch the object. The second test looked at the way we rotate our wrists when pointing at objects – for instance, how we point at a magnet attached to the right-facing side of a box that is placed directly in front of us. Even infants, if using their right hand to point at the magnet, will often rotate their wrist almost 180 degrees so that the pad of their pointing finger is directed towards the magnet, as if reaching to touch it. The third tested how people interpret a pointing gesture being performed by someone else. It showed that 18-month-olds and 3-year-olds – but not 9-year-olds and adults – understand a pointing gesture to be an attempt by someone to touch an object, not an attempt to use their finger as an arrow to direct attention in a certain direction.

7-10-19 Drinking sugary drinks linked to an increased risk for all cancers
Drinking an average of just under 200 ml of a sugar-sweetened drink or fruit juice each day has been linked to an 18 per cent increase in cancer risk. Researchers from the French Public Health Agency and the Nutritional Epidemiology Research Team (EREN) in Bobigny, France, analysed data from over 101,250 people, 79 per cent of whom were women. The average age at the start of the study was 42. At the start of the study, participants filled-out questionnaires that assessed their intake of more than 3000 different food and drink items. They filled out further questionnaires every six months, with many of the participants taking part in the study for up to five years. The team found that the average person consumed nearly 93 ml of sugary drinks or 100 per cent fruit juice – which contains naturally-occurring sugar – a day. Every extra 100 ml on top of this was associated with an 18 per cent increased risk for all cancers, and a 22 per cent increased risk for breast cancer among women. The association between sugary drinks and cancer risk held even when the team took each person’s weight into account. Obesity is known to raise the risk of 13 different types of cancer, but the team found that sugary drinks were linked to cancer risk even in slim people.However, the team say that their findings only show there is an association between sugary drinks and cancer – they have not definitely proved that one causes the other.

7-10-19 Why most new medicines are no better than existing treatments
When it comes to healthcare, new isn’t necessarily better. An analysis of 216 medicines launched in Germany since 2011, most of which would have been made available throughout Europe, has found that only a quarter brought significant benefits over existing treatments, according to the available evidence. The rest had only minor or no benefits, or the impact of the medicine was unknown. Medical regulators expect firms to show that their products are both safe and do what they are supposed to. The standard way to do this is through a randomised controlled trial, but pharmaceutical companies are not required to put their new drugs up against the best possible treatment on the market – instead they may test them against placebo pills. Even when a new therapy is actually tested against an existing one, the old medicine may be given at too low a dose for a fair comparison. “That’s a problem, not only for pricing decisions but if a patient has to decide for one or the other,” says Beate Wieseler of the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care in Germany, one of the authors of the study. In cases where a new drug is truly better than existing ones, the benefit may be so small as to make little practical difference. This is particularly true for cancer treatments – a study of 72 cancer drugs launched in the US over 12 years, found that, on average, they only extended life by two months. Richard Torbett of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry disputes Wieseler’s findings. “Often we find that studies making similar claims invariably take a very narrow view of what constitutes ‘value’ that ignores issues that are important to patients,” he says.

7-10-19 Our species got to Europe 165,000 years earlier than we thought
The first modern humans were not supposed to have reached Europe until 45,000 years ago, but a skull from a Greek cave turns out to be 210,000 years old. HOMO SAPIENS lived in Greece 210,000 years ago. The finding rewrites human prehistory, suggesting our ancestors migrated out of Africa – and reached Europe – earlier than we thought. The evidence comes from Apidima cave in southern Greece. Two hominin skulls, both missing their lower jaws, were discovered in the cave in the 1970s. They were thought to be from Neanderthals, who lived in Europe long before modern humans arrived. Katerina Harvati at the University of Tubingen in Germany and her colleagues have now taken a closer look. They CT-scanned the skulls and compared their shapes to other hominin specimens. As expected, one of the skulls was from a Neanderthal. But to their surprise, the other didn’t fit the Neanderthal mould, and was instead from a modern human. The next step was to find out how old the skulls were. This was difficult, because they were found encased in a block of hardened mud and rocks stuck to the cave ceiling. “This means that they did not come from the same context as any material excavated from the cave floor,” says Harvati. So Harvati’s team turned to uranium-thorium dating, which estimates the age of an object by tracking the decay of radioactive elements. This found the Neanderthal skull to be 170,000 years old. But the human skull was significantly older: 210,000 years old. “This age makes it older than any other accepted Homo sapiens specimen outside of Africa,” says Harvati. In the early 2000s, most anthropologists agreed that Homo sapiens arose in Africa 200,000 years ago and that everyone of recent non-African descent came from a group that left Africa about 60,000 years ago, with Europe reached 45,000 years ago.

7-10-19 A Greek skull may belong to the oldest human found outside of Africa
Homo sapiens may have reached southeastern Europe as early as 210,000 years ago. A skull found in a cliffside cave on Greece’s southern coast in 1978 represents the oldest Homo sapiens fossil outside Africa, scientists say. That skull, from an individual who lived at least 210,000 years ago, was encased in rock that also held a Neandertal skull dating to at least 170,000 years ago, contends a team led by paleoanthropologist Katerina Harvati of the University of Tübingen in Germany. If these findings, reported online July 10 in Nature, hold up, the ancient Greek H. sapiens skull is more than 160,000 years older than the next oldest European H. sapiens fossils (SN Online: 11/2/11). It’s also older than a proposed H. sapiens jaw found at Israel’s Misliya Cave that dates to between around 177,000 and 194,000 years ago (SN: 2/17/18, p. 6). “Multiple Homo sapiens populations dispersed out of Africa starting much earlier, and reaching much farther into Europe, than previously thought,” Harvati said at a July 8 news conference. African H. sapiens originated roughly 300,000 years ago (SN: 7/8/17, p. 6). A small group of humans may have reached what’s now Greece more than 200,000 years ago, she suggested. Neandertals who settled in southeastern Europe not long after that may have replaced those first H. sapiens. Then humans arriving in Mediterranean Europe tens of thousands of years later would eventually have replaced resident Neandertals, who died out around 40,000 years ago (SN Online: 6/26/19). But Harvati’s group can’t exclude the possibility that H. sapiens and Neandertals simultaneously inhabited southeastern Europe more than 200,000 years ago and sometimes interbred. A 2017 analysis of ancient and modern DNA concluded that humans likely mated with European Neandertals at that time.

7-10-19 Earliest modern human found outside Africa
Researchers have found the earliest example of our species (modern humans) outside Africa. A skull unearthed in Greece has been dated to 210,000 years ago, at a time when Europe was occupied by the Neanderthals. The sensational discovery adds to evidence of an earlier migration of people from Africa that left no trace in the DNA of people alive today. The findings are published in the journal Nature. Researchers uncovered two significant fossils in Apidima Cave in Greece in the 1970s. One was very distorted and the other incomplete, however, and it took computed tomography scanning and uranium-series dating to unravel their secrets. The more complete skull appears to be a Neanderthal. But the other shows clear characteristics, such as a rounded back to the skull, diagnostic of modern humans. What's more, the Neanderthal skull was younger. "Now our scenario was that there was an early modern group in Greece by 210,000 years ago, perhaps related to comparable populations in the Levant, but it was subsequently replaced by a Neanderthal population (represented by Apidima 2) by about 170,000 years ago," said co-author Prof Chris Stringer, from London's Natural History Museum. People living outside Africa today trace their ancestry to a migration that left the continent 60,000 years ago. As these modern humans expanded across Eurasia, they largely replaced other species they encountered, such as the Neanderthals and Denisovans. But this wasn't the first migration of modern humans (Homo sapiens) from Africa. Homo sapiens fossils from Skhul and Qafzeh in Israel were dated in the 1990s to between 90,000 and 125,000 years ago. These were viewed as anomalies - a brief foray outside our African homeland that came to very little. However, in recent years, we've come to understand that our species ranged outside Africa even earlier and further than we'd previously believed.

7-10-19 Both fish and humans have REM-like sleep
Sleep may have originated underwater 450 million years ago. No one should have to sleep with the fishes, but new research on zebrafish suggests that we sleep like them. Sleeping zebrafish have brain activity similar to both deep slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement, or REM, sleep that’s found in mammals, researchers report July 10 in Nature. And the team may have tracked down the cells that kick off REM sleep. The findings suggest that the basics of sleep evolved at least 450 million years ago in zebrafish ancestors, before the evolution of animals that give birth to live young instead of laying eggs. That’s 150 million years earlier than scientists thought when they discovered that lizards sleep like mammals and birds (SN: 5/28/16, p. 9). What’s more, sleep may have evolved underwater, says Louis C. Leung, a neuroscientist at Stanford University School of Medicine. “These signatures [of sleep] really have important functions — even though we may not know what they are — that have survived hundreds of millions of years of evolution.” In mammals, birds and lizards, sleep has several stages characterized by specific electrical signals. During slow-wave sleep, the brain is mostly quiet except for synchronized waves of electrical activity. The heart rate decreases and muscles relax. During REM or paradoxical sleep, the brain lights up with activity almost like it’s awake. But the muscles are paralyzed (except for rapid twitching of the eyes) and the heart beats erratically. For many years, scientists have known that fruit flies, nematodes, fish, octopuses and other creatures have rest periods reminiscent of sleep. But until now, no one could measure the electrical activity of those animals’ brains to see if that rest is the same as mammals’ snoozing.

7-10-19 The scientific nutrition facts you really need to inform your diet
Are carbs good for you? Or eggs? Every week seems to bring contradictory new diet advice. New Scientist unpicks the surprising flaws in nutritional science. ONE morning a few months ago, I saw a headline that made my heart sink. It claimed that eggs can give you heart attacks. It wasn’t that I was about to eat eggs for breakfast. It was because, as a medical journalist, I knew friends and family would soon ask me what to make of this claim. And I would have a tough time answering. Advice about what to eat seems to change every week. Eggs are a classic example. They were once seen as wholesome packages of protein and vitamins, a perfect start to the day. But in the 1960s we woke up to the dangers of cholesterol. Eggs, which are rich in this fatty substance, became frowned upon. But wait! Around 20 years ago, our ideas about cholesterol were revised: the amount in our food no longer mattered, because it didn’t really affect the levels in our blood and hence our heart health. In the years that followed, it became OK to eat eggs once more. Then in March, the latest study showed the opposite again – that cholesterol in eggs was bad for us. Sometimes I wonder if we should believe anything we read about food. That might sound like an overreaction, but perhaps it is a rational stance. A growing number of scientists are now saying nutrition science is so flawed that we can’t even trust pillars of advice like eating plenty of vegetables and avoiding saturated fat. Within certain common sense boundaries, they say, it doesn’t matter what we eat. But could that really be true? When I started researching this article, I wondered if the doubters were being unfair. Sure, occasional studies with unusual results get seized on by the media, but maybe they are unrepresentative of the wider field. I discovered that this is the first response of nutrition scientists when a journalist tries to ask them, tactfully, if their field is broken. “You have to be careful about not taking one study and saying that’s the be-all and end-all,” says Louis Levy, head of nutrition at Public Health England. “You have to look at the broader evidence.”

7-10-19 Cooking skills aren't enough to make you eat a healthy diet
A lack of cooking skills has been tied to poor diet choices, but a study of cooking students in Spain has found that better kitchen skills don’t always translate to healthier eating. Pablo Caballero at the University of Alicante in Spain and his colleagues surveyed 108 Spanish students aged 17 to 24 who were studying cooking and gastronomy in Santa Pola, Spain. They asked the students to answer questions about their eating habits and rated them on a scale to determine their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. This diet features fresh fruits and vegetables, seafood, nuts, olive oil and red wine, but very little red meat or sugar, and has been linked to lower rates of heart attack and longer lifespans. Most of the students had a medium level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, 26 per cent had a high adherence, and 14 per cent had a poor score. Though dietary recommendations advise five to 10 servings of fruit each day, only half the students ate a piece of fruit or drank fruit juice every day. More than 60 per cent of the students did not eat vegetables twice a day, and more than a third of them said they usually go to a fast-food restaurant at least once a week. Previous research to combat obesity among children and young adults has found that cooking classes increase fruit and vegetable intake. “On the contrary, in our study, the catering students that have daily cooking classes showed an insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption,” write the team. They suggest that nutritional education may be necessary to change dietary choices. They found that among the degrees these students were pursuing, there were no classes dedicated to human nutrition, and less than 0.8 per cent of their lessons included general information about diet and nutrition.

7-10-19 AI can teach doctors to spot signs of cancer-causing viruses
Signs of viruses that can lead to cancer, like the human papillomavirus (HPV) or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), can be found in tissue samples with costly tests that aren’t always accurate. But a new study shows that artificial intelligence can hunt down these signs reliably – and can help teach human doctors to spot them too. Some cancers can have viral or non-viral pathways, such as gastric cancer or head and neck cancer. In these cases, it’s crucial to determine whether a virus is involved in order to decide on the best treatment. Jakob Nikolas Kather at University Hospital RWTH Aachen in Germany and his colleagues trained a neural network using images of tumour tissue samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The training images came from 412 people with head and neck cancer, with 12 per cent testing positive for HPV, and 317 people with gastric cancer, with 8 per cent testing positive for EBV. The neural network accurately identified the presence of a virus in samples with HPV 89 per cent of the time, and 80 per cent of the time for samples with EBV. The team then reverse-engineered fake tissue sample images from the neural network, using a computer vision algorithm called Deep Dream that let them see what key characteristics in the patterns the AI was “seeing” when it found signs of the viruses. They showed the results to a panel of expert pathologists who described the features. They saw in the HPV-negative images “a sheet of small nodules composed of bright, predominantly warm colours,” and in the HPV-positive images “large nests with rounded borders composed of dark, predominantly cool colours punctuated by red dots.” The EBV-negative images had “ill-defined dark green whorls punctuated by blue dots and wisps of yellow” and the EBV-positive images showed “overlapping sheets with reticulated patterns in pastel colours.” The team behind the study suggest these patterns could help human doctors better identify the signs of cancer-related viruses.

7-10-19 Toddlers tend to opt for the last thing in a set, so craft your questions carefully
When 2-year-olds were asked a series of “this or that” questions, the toddlers showed strong preferences — but not for the reasons you’d think. My youngest child, now just over a year old, has started to talk. Even though I’ve experienced this process with my older two, it’s absolutely thrilling. He is putting words to the thoughts that swirl around in his sweet little head, making his mind a little less mysterious to the rest of us. But these early words may not mean what we think they mean, a new study hints. Unsurprisingly, when 2-year-olds were asked a series of “this or that” questions, the toddlers showed strong preferences — but not for the reasons you’d think. Overwhelmingly, the toddlers answered the questions with the last choice given. That bias, described in PLOS ONE on June 12, suggests that young children’s answers to these sorts of questions don’t actually reflect their desires. Instead, kids may simply be echoing the last thing they heard. This verbal quirk can be used by parents to great effect, as the researchers point out in the title of their paper: “Cake or broccoli?” More fundamentally, the results raise questions about what sort of information a verbal answer actually pulls out of a young child’s mind. This murkiness is especially troublesome when it comes to questions whose answers call for adult action, such as: “Did you hit your sister on purpose or on accident?” In the first series of experiments, researchers led by Emily Sumner at the University of California, Irvine, asked 24 1- and 2-year-olds a bunch of two-choice questions, some of which involved a polar bear named Rori or a grizzly bear named Quinn. One question, for example, was, “Does Rori live in an igloo or a tepee?” Later, the researchers switched the bear and the order of the options, asking, for example, “Does Quinn live in a tepee or an igloo?” The toddlers could answer either verbally or, for reluctant speakers, by pointing at one of two stickers that showed the choices. When the children answered the questions by pointing, they chose the second option about half the time, right around chance. But when the toddlers spoke their answers, they chose the second option 85 percent of the time, regardless of the bear.

7-10-19 See how visualizations of the moon have changed over time
From Plato to Galileo to Chang’e, views of our lunar neighbor keep evolving. Look up at the moon and you’ll see roughly the same patterns of light and shadow that Plato saw about 2,500 years ago. But humankind’s understanding of Earth’s nearest neighbor has changed considerably since then, and so have the ways that scientists and others have visualized the moon. To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing, here are a collection of images that give a sense of how the moon has been depicted over time — from hand-drawn illustrations and maps, to early photographs, to highly detailed satellite images made possible by spacecraft such as NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The images, compiled with help from Marcy Bidney, curator of the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, show how developments in technology such as the telescope and camera drove ever more detailed views of Earth’s closest celestial companion.

7-9-19 Do you run with bent arms? Turns out it doesn't make much difference
Have you ever tried running with your arms straight? Most people find it quite a challenge, so it comes as a surprise to learn that it doesn’t require more energy than running with bent arms. Running with bent arms and walking with straight arms are almost universal habits, but until now, there has been no research that explains why. Andrew Yegian and colleagues at Harvard University recruited eight students to walk and run on a treadmill with their arms straight and bent. Six of the subjects also had their oxygen consumption measured. As you might expect, walking with bent arms proved to be more energetically demanding than with straight arms, increasing oxygen consumption by 11 per cent. But unexpectedly, running with straight arms does not appear to be more efficient than running with straight arms. “Pretty much every subject in the study said that straight-arm running was the most challenging condition,” says Yegian. “That’s why it was very surprising when we couldn’t find any difference in the energetics.” The way we hold our arms is influenced by a trade-off between energy spent at the shoulder and the elbow, Yegian explains. Bending the arms uses more energy at the elbow to resist gravity, but should save energy at the shoulder since it effectively makes the arm shorter, reducing the force needed to swing the arms. The results for walking suggest that with bent arms, we spend more energy at the elbow than we save at the shoulder. As there was no difference in oxygen consumption while running, this suggests that the trade-off between shoulder and elbow energy is balanced. But it leaves the reason why we bend our arms when we run unexplained. The study only tested running at a relatively low speed, so perhaps the benefit of bending our arms is only apparent at a higher speed. Maybe bending the arms spreads some energy demand from the shoulder to the elbow, stopping the shoulder muscles from tiring out. “These are speculative hypotheses to test in the future,” says Yegian.

7-9-19 Chlamydia may spread through the gut to infect new parts of the body
Chlamydia may cause rectal infections in some people by spreading through the gastrointestinal tract after oral sex, according to a study of heterosexual men. Past research has found that some women contract rectal chlamydia without ever engaging in anal sex, and it has been thought that the infection may have passed from the vagina to the rectum. To distinguish the pathways this sexually transmitted infection can take, David Nelson at Indiana University in Bloomington and his colleagues studied chlamydia in men at risk for the infection. “One of the main reasons we looked in heterosexual men was to reduce the possibility of auto-inoculation which seems more likely in women,” says Nelson. The team analysed rectal swabs from 197 men with a median age of 28, and each man completed a questionnaire on their sexual history and health. There were 135 men who identified as heterosexual in the study. Of these, 84 said they had performed cunnilingus in their lifetime and but had not engaged in other sexual acts that could expose the rectum to the infection, such as anal sex. Out of these 84 men, two tested positive for rectal chlamydia. This suggests that the infection may have entered their body through the mouth, given that their only exposure was the urethra and the oral cavity, Nelson says. Previous work has shown that chlamydia can survive the low pH levels common in the gastrointestinal tract, and chlamydia DNA has been detected in the appendix and colon, which supports the idea that the infection may be passed through oral sex.

7-8-19 Immunotherapy may help treat some resistant bowel cancers
It may be possible to use immunotherapy to treat bowel cancers that have stopped responding to treatment. So hints a small study of 35 people with advanced bowel cancer. The study found that cancer-killing immune cells were on average six times more active in tumours that had become resistant to cetuximab than those that had not responded to the drug at all. Cetuximab is one of the main drugs used to treat bowel cancer, but it only works in about half of patients. Even among cancers that initially respond to the drug, most tumours eventually become resistant to it. Once this happens, there are few treatment options left. But the discovery that immune cells are particularly active in cetuximab-resistant tumours suggests that it might be possible to boost this immune response. To see immune activity in bowel cancers is rare, says Marco Gerlinger at the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, who was involved in the study. The team thinks that cetuximab kills cancer cells in a way that sends signals that attract immune cells to the tumour. “It’s enormously exciting to see that cetuximab attracts immune cells into these tumours,” says Gerlinger. A trial is now testing whether immunotherapy can harness this immune response. The trial is using two immunotherapy drugs – nivolumab and relatlimab – to see if such treatment could help people whose tumours have become resistant to cetuximab and chemotherapy.

7-9-19 HPV vaccine to be offered to UK boys as well as girls from September
Boys in the UK are to be given the HPV vaccine from September in a bid to prevent cervical and other cancers. Currently, only girls receive the vaccine, which also protects against penile, anal and genital cancers, as well as some cancers of the head and neck. But from the beginning of the next school year, boys aged 12 and 13 will be given the vaccine with parental consent. The vaccine gives protection against the human papilloma virus, which causes 99 per cent of cervical cancers. “Offering the vaccine to boys will not only protect them but will also prevent more cases of HPV-related cancers in girls and reduce the overall burden of these cancers in both men and women in the future,” says Mary Ramsay, of Public Health England. Girls have been offered the vaccine in school since 2008. PHE say the programme has led to an 86 per cent fall in infections of some strains of HPV among people aged 16 to 21. A study in Scotland has suggested that the vaccine has reduced pre-cancerous cervical disease in women by up to 71 per cent. “This decision is a triumph for gender equality and cancer prevention,” says Beate Kampmann, of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. “It’s pleasing to see the UK follow the example of other countries like Australia, where the vaccine has been implemented for girls since 2007 and for boys since 2013.”

7-9-19 Gene-silencing drug for rare hereditary disorder approved for NHS use
A gene-silencing therapy for a rare hereditary condition has been approved for NHS use in England. Patisiran – marketed under the brand name Onpattro – targets a faulty gene in the liver that causes hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis. This condition can be inherited from either parent and causes sticky amyloid protein to build up in organs and around nerves. This can lead to problems with limb movements, vision and heart function, and can also trigger chronic burning neuropathic pain. The condition is thought to affect about 100 people in the UK. Patisiran works by using genetic material called RNA to block the action of the faulty gene. It was approved by the US Food and Drugs Administration last year. “Patisiran has shown in its main clinical study that it can halt or even improve potentially debilitating symptoms of this disease in the majority of patients,” says Philip Hawkins, head of the National Amyloidosis Centre at London’s Royal Free Hospital. “This means we now have a real possibility of preserving quality of life for eligible patients for longer than has so far been possible.” The drug is administered once every three weeks by intravenous infusion and can cost as much as £300,000 a year per patient. According to NICE, the company has a “commercial arrangement” which “makes patisiran available to the NHS with a discount” – the size of which is confidential.

7-9-19 'Amazing' gene-silencing drugs reach NHS
A new form of medicine called "gene-silencing" has been approved for use by the NHS in England. The drugs will be used to reverse a disease called amyloidosis, which causes nerve and organ damage. It can be fatal. Vince Nicholas, whose twin brother and mother both died from the disease, says the therapies are giving him hope. Doctors say gene-silencing is making the "previously untreatable, treatable" and has huge potential in medicine. "It's decimated our family," said Vince from Salisbury. "My mum had five siblings and they all died of it. There are five of us, three of us have it and one has died." The disease is passed down through families - one out of every two of the children of affected people will develop it. The first signs of Vincent's disease were pins and needles in his hands and feet. Vincent's brother Neil, a talented musician, said: "It affects the autonomic nervous system so it's things like eating, sweating, sexual function. "You lose that very gradually and then suddenly it all goes. "My legs are numb from my knee down and it was going to my hands as well." Eventually patients end up needing a wheel chair. It can affect eyesight, dangerously weaken the heart and cause chronic pain. There are different forms of amyloidosis and the Nicholas family have hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis. They have a "rogue gene" that leads to the build-up of sticky, toxic proteins in the body. The protein, called transthyretin, is made by the liver and damages organs and nerves. It can be fatal within three to 15 years of symptoms first developing. It affects about 150 people in the UK. The treatment uses an approach called gene silencing. A gene is part of our DNA that contains the blueprint for making proteins, such as hormones, enzymes or raw building materials. But our DNA is locked away inside a cell's nucleus and kept apart from a cell's protein-making factories. So our bodies use a short strand of genetic code, called messenger RNA, to bridge the gap and carry the instructions. This drug, called patisiran, kills the messenger in a process known as RNA interference. This effectively silences the rogue transthyretin gene and lowers levels of the toxic protein in the body. Patisiran is the first treatment of its type to be approved. A couple of weeks ago, inotersen was also approved for this disease and it uses a different approach to disable the messenger RNA.

7-9-19 Ebola in DR Congo: Fear and mistrust stalk battle to halt outbreak
There can be few greater challenges than tackling a lethal epidemic. But imagine trying to do so in a conflict zone ravaged by extreme poverty, insecurity and poor communications amid a population where health workers are feared and distrusted. Yet that is the reality of Ebola in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo, where more than 1,500 people have lost their lives from the virus in the past year. In the city of Butembo, in North Kivu province, I see how local and international medical staff and charities are trying to combat the disease. Essentially, it is a gruesome game of whack-a-mole that appears all but impossible to win. It works like this: The morning I was there, news came through that a woman had died of Ebola. Staff from the World Health Organization (WHO), the UN-funded agency, rushed to the scene and set up a pop-up vaccination centre. What this means in practice is a few trestle tables under a number of tents. Then, members of the dead woman's family, her friends, her neighbours are identified and are asked to be vaccinated. Afterwards, their wider contact group are vaccinated too in the hope this double ring of protection will stop the virus in its tracks. These vaccination centres are funded in part by the British government. The UK's International Development Secretary, Rory Stewart, was there to see for himself what his department is getting for its aid budget. And they are clearly making an impact. But only up to point, for there are challenges that this model struggles to overcome. Many Ebola deaths are never reported. Decades of conflict have led to widespread mistrust of the authorities and this has an impact on the disease spreading, according to authors of a recent report. Some deny the disease exists, believing it to be a poison invented by the international community to traffic body parts. (Webmaster's comment: Just what we want, diseased body parts!) Others do not trust trained medical staff to look after the sick. Then there are those who simply do not want their loved ones snatched from them, sealed up in a plastic body bag and buried anonymously by someone else.

7-9-19 Ancient humans used the moon as a calendar in the sky
Cave art and stone carvings reveal early humans’ time-tracking sophistication. The sun’s rhythm may have set the pace of each day, but when early humans needed a way to keep time beyond a single day and night, they looked to a second light in the sky. The moon was one of humankind’s first timepieces long before the first written language, before the earliest organized cities and well before structured religions. The moon’s face changes nightly and with the regularity of the seasons, making it a reliable marker of time. “It’s an obvious timepiece,” Anthony Aveni says of the moon. Aveni is a professor emeritus of astronomy and anthropology at Colgate University in Hamilton, N.Y., and a founder of the field of archaeoastronomy. “There is good evidence that [lunar timekeeping] was around as early as 25,000, 30,000, 35,000 years before the present.” When people began depicting what they saw in the natural world, two common motifs were animals and the night sky. One of the earliest known cave paintings, dated to at least 40,000 years ago in a cave on the island of Borneo, includes a wild bull with horns. European cave art dating to about 37,000 years ago depicts wild cattle too, as well as geometric shapes that some researchers interpret as star patterns and the moon. For decades, prehistorians and other archaeologists believed that ancient humans were portraying what they saw in the natural world because of an innate creative streak. The modern idea that Paleolithic people were depicting nature for more than artistic reasons gained traction at the end of the 19th century and was further developed in the early 20th century by Abbé Henri Breuil, a French Catholic priest and archaeologist. He interpreted the stylistic bison and lions in the cave paintings and carvings of southern France as ritual art designed to bring luck to the hunt. In the 1960s, a journalist–turned–amateur anthropologist proposed even more practical purposes for these drawings and other artifacts: They were created for telling time.

7-8-19 Half of babies affected by Zika virus are developing normally by age 2
Among a group of about 200 babies born to mothers who had contracted Zika virus, about one third had developmental delays, but not all of them were lasting. About half of the babies with abnormal assessments early in their lives later tested normally on developmental tests around age 2 or 3. Karin Nielsen-Saines at the University of California, Los Angeles, and her colleagues tracked the development of babies born to women who contracted Zika virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil during the 2015-2016 epidemic. The 216 infants were all born by December 2016, and were assessed using standard tests to monitor infant and toddler cognition, language and motor skills. The team also tested the children’s vision and hearing. About 30 per cent of the children had below average development, or eye or hearing deficits. Language development was the most affected, followed by motor skills and cognitive development. Eye exams were abnormal in 7 per cent of the children and hearing deficits were seen in 12 per cent of the children. Eight of the children had microcephaly, the abnormally small head shape associated with Zika virus, though it resolved over time in two of these cases. In one case, the child’s head naturally caught up to normal size, and in the other, the child had corrective surgery. The team also found that 49 per cent of children with abnormal development in early infancy – including abnormal brain scans, seizures and low muscle tone – had normal results on their tests at age 2 or 3. On the other hand, the team points out that normal assessments just after birth don’t guarantee future normal development. They found that about 25 per cent of the children in this category went on to have below average neurological development, or delays in hearing or vision development. That includes three children who developed autism by age 2.

7-8-19 A 100-hour MRI scan captured the most detailed look yet at a whole human brain
A device recently approved by the U.S. FDA made extremely precise images of a postmortem sample. Over 100 hours of scanning has yielded a 3-D picture of the whole human brain that’s more detailed than ever before. The new view, enabled by a powerful MRI, has the resolution potentially to spot objects that are smaller than 0.1 millimeters wide. “We haven’t seen an entire brain like this,” says electrical engineer Priti Balchandani of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, who was not involved in the study. “It’s definitely unprecedented.” The scan shows brain structures such as the amygdala in vivid detail, a picture that might lead to a deeper understanding of how subtle changes in anatomy could relate to disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder. To get this new look, researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston and elsewhere studied a brain from a 58-year-old woman who died of viral pneumonia. Her donated brain, presumed to be healthy, was preserved and stored for nearly three years. Before the scan began, researchers built a custom spheroid case of urethane that held the brain still and allowed interfering air bubbles to escape. Sturdily encased, the brain then went into a powerful MRI machine called a 7 Tesla, or 7T, and stayed there for almost five days of scanning. The strength of the 7T, the length of the scanning time and the fact that the brain was perfectly still led to the high-resolution images, which are described May 31 at bioRxiv.org. Associated videos of the brain, as well as the underlying dataset, are publicly available. Researchers can’t get the same kind of resolution on brains of living people. For starters, people couldn’t tolerate a 100-hour scan. And even tiny movements, such as those that come from breathing and blood flow, would blur the images.

7-8-19 Extracting sperm directly from testicles could help infertility issues
Taking sperm directly from the testicles rather than using semen may be a new way to help couples conceive through IVF. The approach has been used for some time in men who are infertile for reasons such as a blockage in the tubes that take sperm to the penis. But some clinics are now starting to use the approach more widely, for couples who are having trouble conceiving through IVF for unexplained reasons, doctors heard at the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology conference in Vienna last month. Surgical sperm retrieval can be done in several ways, ranging from a relatively minor procedure where sperm is drawn out with a needle, to a longer operation to remove tissue from the testicles. One reason for its growing use is the idea that in some couples with unexplained infertility, the reason could be that the man’s sperm are unhealthy or dying, even though they appear normal. Many clinics now offer sperm DNA testing – more fragmented DNA indicates fewer healthy sperm – but it’s still unclear where the cut-off should be. The damage to the sperm is thought to happen mainly after they have formed, while they are maturing in storage tubes next to the testes. It’s reactive chemicals called free radicals that cause the damage. They are generated by high temperatures, smoking, obesity and other factors. Several studies have shown that in infertile men, sperm taken from the testicles has less fragmented DNA than that in semen – presumably because it has skipped the potentially damaging maturation stage. “Free radicals are very detrimental to sperm DNA,” says Sandro Esteves of Androfert in Campinas, Brazil. Sceptics say it is safer to use sperm from semen, in case taking sperm from the testicles selects one that has chromosome abnormalities and couldn’t have fertilised the egg naturally.

7-8-19 Moonlight shapes how some animals move, grow and even sing
Behavior can be tied to the lunar phases. Crowds of people gather to watch an evening spectacle on beaches in Southern California: Twice a month, typically from March through August, the sand becomes carpeted with hundreds or thousands of California grunion. Writhing, flopping, silvery sardine look-alikes lunge as far onto shore as possible. As the female fish dig their tails into the sand and release eggs, males wrap around females and release sperm to fertilize those eggs. About 10 days later, the eggs hatch and the little grunion get washed out to sea. This mating ritual is set to the tides, with hatching timed to the arrival of the peak high tide every two weeks. But the ultimate force choreographing this dance is the moon. Many people know that the moon’s gravitational tug on the Earth drives the tides, and with them, the life cycles of coastal creatures. Yet the moon also influences life with its light. For people living in cities ablaze with artificial lights, it can be hard to imagine how dramatically moonlight can change the nocturnal landscape. Out in the wild, far from any artificial light, the difference between a full moon and a new moon (when the moon appears invisible to us) can be the difference between being able to walk outside without a flashlight and not being able to see the hand in front of your face. And animals respond. The presence or absence of moonlight, along with the predictable changes in brightness across the lunar cycle, can shape reproduction, foraging, communication and other aspects of an animal’s world. “Light is possibly, maybe just after the availability of resources in terms of food, the most important environmental driver of changes in behavior and physiology,” says ecologist Davide Dominoni of the University of Glasgow in Scotland.

7-8-19 Ground beetle genitals have the genetic ability to get strange. They don’t
A new look at the genetics of sex organs finds his vs. hers conflicts over length and width. A new peek at the genetics of beetle genitals reveals the underpinnings of a battle of the sexes. When mating, males of Japan’s flightless Carabus beetles insert a chitin-covered appendage that, once inside a female, pops out a plump sperm-delivery tube as well as a side projection called a copulatory piece. That piece doesn’t deliver any sperm, but steadies the alignment by fitting just so into a special pocket inside the female reproductive tract. Researchers in Japan have now identified several regions of DNA that include genes controlling the length and width of the piece and pocket. Instead of being controlled mostly by the same genes, the beetles seem to have a fair amount of genetic freedom in changing one sex’s doodad dimensions without also resizing the other sex’s counterpart, evolutionary ecologist Teiji Sota of Kyoto University and colleagues say June 26 in Science Advances. Within a given species of these beetles, males and females have evolved compatible sizes, but the capacity for mismatching shows up in hybrids. Out-of-sync sizes can cause ruptures, snap-offs and generally low numbers of offspring. This misfortune matters not just to a few unlucky beetles, but to the whole process of forming species, or speciation. “I personally think that one of the greatest remaining mysteries in evolutionary biology is the role of genital evolution in speciation,” says Justa Heinen-Kay of the University of Minnesota in St. Paul. She was not part of the beetle work, but has studied fish genital evolution. Across the animal kingdom, shapes of genitals are among the most rapidly evolving traits, she points out. There are species that otherwise look almost exactly alike that specialists distinguish by differences in genitals.

7-7-19 The myth of the magical childhood
The case for letting your kids be bored this summer. We parents are on a quest of Tolkien magnitude: curating the perfect childhood for our kids. It's a never-ending and, quite frankly, thankless job that reaches peak hysteria in summer when school's out. From now until September, for the children of parents who have the means, life is a bombardment of camps, play spaces, theme parks, and vacations. The reasons we're so obsessed with cramming our kids' calendars with imposed fun are myriad, and rooted in the socially-engineered mutant that is modern parenting. First, there's that intensely guilty feeling that if our kids aren't getting to suck every last bit of fun out of every day, they're suffering and it's all our fault. This is especially pronounced if both parents work and feel the need to compensate for being family-time-poor. Then, there's our crushing fear of the words, "I'm bored." Other than being intensely irritating, this phrase signifies parental catastrophe. Our mission to provide All The Joy All The Time has failed. And, of course, we're driven to stuff in as much manufactured fun as we can manage in the hope that it'll mask our parental failings. But filling our kids' lives with nonstop entertainment is as unhealthy as it is unfeasible. We already know that over-scheduling kids with extracurricular activities saps not only our bank accounts but also kids' ability to bed down in boredom and use their imaginations. Bucket loads of juvenile ennui and time spent staring at the same cracked spot on our bedroom wall and imagining what was underneath never did us grown-ups any harm, but somehow we assume it's the kiss of death for our own kids. The kicker is, engineering endless joy doesn't get you the kiddie kudos it should. Manufacturing pleasure for our offspring is like shoveling glitter, magic beans, and opalescent sugar crystals into the void. That's because children don't bank experiences like adults; they enjoy things in the moment — maybe — and then they move on. And they're not equipped to lie to your face and pretend they're happy when they're not, or see their magical little lives in the context of global suffering — even when you point it out to them. That's why the perennial parental appeal of "Eat all your food because some kids are starving" doesn't work. They don't care. Thankfully, most kids won't stall at the cute dimply psychopath stage, but until they reach the age of empathy, this is mostly how it is.

7-6-19 How singing helps us grow closer
Those who sing together stay together. In Bohemian Rhapsody (2018), the movie about the British band Queen, the scene that sticks in my mind depicts the Live Aid concert in London in 1985. Freddie Mercury belts out their best-loved songs and the crowd is singing along, swaying, clapping, and stamping its feet. I could empathize a potent sense of togetherness in the audience, a feeling of cohesion between thousands of fans, coming not only from a shared enjoyment of watching the band but, more importantly, from being part of the music-making. It's no wonder that the film shows the Live Aid donations start to climb during this set: We know that social bonding is associated with more pro-social behavior. As a researcher, I am interested in how and why this sense of solidity from singing comes about. Singing is universal. It is found in all cultures and, despite protestations of tone deafness, the vast majority of people can sing. Singing also often occurs in collective contexts: Think about sports stadiums, religious services, and birthday celebrations. Given these two characteristics, my colleagues and I wondered whether singing is a behavior that evolved to bond groups together. Being part of a group is essential to human survival. In our hunter-gatherer past, having supportive social relationships would have enabled people to get the resources they needed to defend them against outsiders, to benefit from collective child-rearing, and to share and develop cultural knowledge about their environment and about useful technological inventions. We now also know that feeling sufficiently socially connected guards against physical and mental illness, and increases longevity. The trouble is that human social groups are much larger than those of our primate relatives. Whereas monkeys and apes create social bonds through one-to-one grooming sessions, human groups are too large to be able to do that and still have enough time to eat and sleep. We needed a more efficient mechanism of creating social cohesion, a way to bond larger numbers of individuals together simultaneously.

7-5-19 What does language have to do with masculinity?
New research shows that men view learning foreign languages as unmanly. Okay, it isn't strictly necessary that the president of the United States speak seven or eight languages. If Pete Buttigieg ultimately assumes the office, his remarkable linguistic abilities will be seen as a useful bonus. Given that we live in an increasingly interconnected world, in which our next employer or new neighbor could be from another country or culture, multilingualism is an obvious plus. So why are so many men reluctant to study another language? New research offers an offbeat answer: It is perceived by many as unmanly. A study from Canada reveals undergraduates consider language learning to be a feminine pursuit, and that men with traditional beliefs about the proper roles of men and women report less interest in such study if their masculinity has been threatened. "Holding traditional gender role beliefs may cause men to handicap themselves by limiting the scope of educational choices they consider," writes a research team led by University of Alberta psychologist Kathryn Everhart Chaffee. The researchers describe two studies in the journal Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. The first featured 1,673 introductory psychology students at a Canadian university who were asked where most of their peers would place various majors on a scale of masculine to feminine. "Both male and female participants stereotype mathematical domains as masculine and languages as feminine," they report. The second study featured 182 male introductory psychology students. They first took a "pre-test" that would ostensibly provide initial psychological profiles for each. In response, they were given fabricated feedback. Specifically, they were told their "masculinity score" was a below-average 33 or an above-average 73 on a zero-to-100 point scale. Between one week and three months later, they took a second test, in which they noted whether they would like to learn a foreign language, and whether they planned to study one of six languages as part of their college curriculum. They also completed a questionnaire designed to determine their views on traditional concepts of masculinity. Specifically, they indicated their level of agreement with statements such as, "In some kinds of situations, a man should be ready to use his fists, even if his wife or girlfriend would object." The key result: Men who tended to endorse such macho attitudes, and had their masculinity threatened (by receiving the fake low score), expressed less interest in learning a language, and lower intention of taking a class to do so. (Webmaster's comment: We've rightfully learned to expect less of many men.)

7-5-19 Nerve surgery helps people with paralysis control their hands and arms
Nerve surgery can restore some control to the arm and hand following spinal cord injury. Surgeons have reanimated the hands and arms of people who are paralysed by connecting up working nerves to the injured ones, giving people the ability to use their phones, apply make-up and feed themselves again. The surgery is life-changing, says surgeon Natasha van Zyl at Austin Health, Australia. One of her patients is currently travelling in Europe, and another can now take his grandchild to the movies by himself – both are leading drastically more independent lives than either had before. Her team in Melbourne and several other small groups globally have been developing this technique over the last several years and seen promising results, but so far the medical literature has only focused on individual case studies or small retrospective studies. So van Zyl and her colleagues recruited 16 patients with spinal injuries that led to arm and leg paralysis, otherwise known as quadriplegia or tetraplegia. Most had been injured in car accidents, playing sports or through falls. If the injury is relatively high up on the spinal cord, it can lead to arm paralysis because many of the nerves through which we control our arms branch off below the injury site. But any arm nerves that branch away from the spinal cord above the injury site will still work, for example. van Zyl and her team spliced these working nerves to the non-functioning ones that help control vital movements in the hands and elbows. Two years after the surgery, and after intensive physical therapy, the study participants were able to open their hands, grasp, pinch and extend their elbows again. Jeremy Simcock at the University of Otago in Christchurch, New Zealand, says this is a “landmark paper” that establishes the safety and efficacy of this surgery for people with quadriplegia.

7-4-19 Exclusive: Five couples lined up for CRISPR babies to avoid deafness
Five Russian couples who are deaf want to try the CRISPR gene-editing technique so they can have a biological child who can hear, biologist Denis Rebrikov has told New Scientist. He plans to apply to the relevant Russian authorities for permission in “a couple of weeks”. The case for using CRISPR for this purpose is stronger than for trying to make children HIV-resistant, as attempted previously, but the risks still outweigh the benefits, say other researchers. “Rebrikov is definitely determined to do some germline gene editing, and I think we should take him very seriously,” says CRISPR expert Gaetan Burgio at the Australian National University. “But it’s too early, it’s too risky.” Both would-be parents in each couple have a recessive form of deafness, meaning that all their children would normally inherit the same condition. While the vast majority of genetic diseases can be prevented by screening IVF embryos before implantation, with no need for gene-editing, this is not an option for these couples. Several reports have suggested that – if it can be done safely – editing the genes of babies might be justified in this kind of situation. That is exactly why Rebrikov, at Russia’s largest fertility clinic, the Kulakov National Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology in Moscow, has sought out these very unusual couples. “It is clear and understandable to ordinary people,” he says. “Each new baby for this pair would be deaf without gene mutation editing.” In November, a biophysicist in China announced that he had secretly created the first-ever gene edited babies using CRISPR. He Jiankui tried – but probably failed – to induce mutations that protect against HIV by gene-editing IVF embryos from couples in which the man is HIV-positive. (Webmaster's comment: First the Chinese and now the Russians. The world is passing by the religiously backward United States.)

7-4-19 Astronauts don't seem to be dying from exposure to space radiation
Space exploration is a risky business. As well as the physical dangers, radiation from the sun and cosmic rays is thought to put astronauts at a higher risk of cancer and heart disease in later life. But a new study that looked at whether astronauts are dying early from these conditions found no sign. “We haven’t ruled it out, but we looked for a signal and we didn’t see it,” says Robert Reynolds of Mortality Research & Consulting, City of Industry in California. So far, not enough of the space-goers have died from these conditions to just compare their age of death with that of others. Instead, Reynolds’ team used a statistical technique on survival figures for 301 US astronauts and 117 Soviet and Russian cosmonauts. Of the total group, 89 have died to date. Three-quarters of cosmonaut deaths were due to cancer or heart disease, while only half of the astronaut deaths were, probably because there have been more fatal accidents in the US space programme, such as the Challenger shuttle disaster. Down here on Earth, getting heart disease doesn’t make you more or less likely to also get cancer – the two conditions develop relatively independently of each other. But if radiation exposure were causing a surge in both conditions amongst people who have been to space, then the higher rate of death from one illness would be dampened by the higher rate of the other – because anyone who dies from heart disease cannot also die from cancer. Reynold’s team plotted the space-goers’ deaths over time as survival curves – which show the rate at which a particular group is dying – for each disease, and found no sign of this dampening effect. However, that doesn’t rule out that radiation could be giving the astronauts a higher rate of one condition but not the other – for instance, if it caused cancer but not heart disease.

7-4-19 Sudan tomb diver reveals pharaoh's secrets
An underwater archaeologist has told the BBC of the extraordinary lengths he went to to access a pharaoh's tomb underneath a pyramid. Pearce Paul Creasman and his team were the first people to go into the tomb for 100 years and, in that time, it has become harder to access because of the rising water level. Mr Creasman told BBC Newsday that this was the first time underwater archaeology had been carried out in Sudan, the location of the ancient royal burial site of Nuri. He found pottery figurines and gold leaf. "The gold offerings were still sitting there - these small glass-type statues had been leafed in gold. And while the water destroyed the glass underneath, the little gold flake was still there," he told Newsday. He believes these offerings were for Nastasen, a minor pharaoh who ruled the Kush kingdom from 335 BC to 315 BC. This gold leaf would have been taken by thieves if it weren't for the rising water level making the tomb inaccessible to most, underwater archaeologist Kristin Romey writes in the National Geographic. Mr Creasman told the BBC that the team "dug as far as we could" down a 65-step stairway which led to the tomb entry but "we got about 40 stairs down until we hit the water table and knew we wouldn't be able to go any further without putting our heads under". Normal scuba tanks "would have been too cumbersome", he said, so instead they used a hose that pumped oxygen from the surface on the dive in January. He described what he found as "remarkable": "There are three chambers, with these beautiful arched ceilings, about the size of a small bus, you go in one chamber into the next, it's pitch black, you know you're in a tomb if your flash lights aren't on. And it starts revealing the secrets that are held within." The tomb is part of the ancient site of Nuri which is spread across more than 170 acres in northern Sudan. These pyramids mark the burials of Kushite royals who are sometimes referred to as "black pharaohs". The Kush kingdom lasted for many hundreds of years and, in the 8th Century BC, it conquered Egypt which it ruled for almost a century. One difference between the pyramids in Sudan and the much more famous pyramids in Egypt is that the kings were buried below them, instead of inside.

7-3-19 Why cat people and dog people's personalities match those of their pet
People's personalities often have more in common with their dog or cat than their friends, and now we know why owners and their animals are such a purr-fect match. PSYCHOLOGIST Richard Wiseman’s taste for quirky science is well known, so his pet personality project should come as no surprise. In an online survey, he asked people to rate their pets for things like friendliness and neuroticism. Over half of fish owners said their watery friends had a good sense of humour. Fish apparently appreciate a joke more than cats, horses and birds – but not as much as dogs. Reptiles entirely fail to see the funny side of things, according to their owners. The survey also asked people to evaluate themselves. “Fish owners were the happiest,” Wiseman reported on his Quirkology website, “dog owners the most fun to be with, cat owners the most dependable and emotionally sensitive, and reptile owners the most independent.” There were big differences in personality, he noted. And here is the clincher: most people attributed the traits they possessed to their animals too. In other words, we see our pets as reflections of ourselves. Just a bit of fun? You might think so. But in recent years a new breed of researcher has been investigating the complex relationship between people and their pets. They are trying to answer questions including: are pets like substitute children; do we manipulate them, or them us; and can the world really be divided into “dog people” and “cat people”? Some people are said to look like their pets, but this new take on human-pet interactions is even weirder: it turns out that we may think like them too. Most of this research focuses on cats and dogs. Worldwide, they are by far the most popular pets – fish are kept in greater numbers but by fewer people. More than half of people in the US have a dog or cat in their home, for example. And in the UK, where around 45 per cent of homes have a pet, a quarter of households own dogs and some 18 per cent are owned by cats.

7-3-19 Known unknowns: How to communicate certainly in an uncertain world
From the speed of global warming to the likelihood of developing cancer, we must grasp uncertainty to understand the world. Here’s how to know your unknowns. TAKE a look at the headlines, and it seems we are pretty certain about the state of the world. “UK unemployment falls to 1.44 million”, “India’s tiger population bounces to 2,226”, “Saddam Hussein now has weapons of mass destruction”. Yet all these statements come with uncertainty attached. People often shy away from admitting this, be they politicians, experts or journalists expounding in the media, or doctors talking to patients. Perhaps they assume it will undermine people’s trust or make decisions harder. Yet making informed decisions also depends on knowing the unknowns. In a paper in Royal Society Open Science, my colleagues and I have reviewed the evidence about how best to communicate uncertainty without putting off or wrong-footing an audience (doi.org/gf2g9j). We suggest a checklist of questions communicators should ask to guide their approach. First, are you dealing with an uncertain fact (summer Arctic ice cover has declined over the past decade), number (2226 tigers in India) or underlying hypothesis (eating bacon causes cancer)? Second, where does the uncertainty come from: natural variation, measurement difficulty, limited knowledge or expert disagreement? (We set aside the future effects of randomness and chance.) The practical problems of counting India’s tigers, for example, may cast the precision of that number in a different light. Third, is the uncertainty direct (specifically about the fact or number), indirect (about the quality of the underlying evidence) or a mixture of both? Conflating the two can sow confusion. Take the decision of the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 2015 to classify processed meat alongside cigarettes as “known carcinogens”. This expresses low indirect uncertainty: the evidence says that both processed meat and cigarettes increase cancer risk.

7-3-19 Is organic food better for you? Here's the truth about the benefits
Claims about the health benefits of organic foods are often linked to their higher levels of vitamins and antioxidants. Is organic food really better for you? IT STARTED with a leaflet on my doormat. In big, bold letters, a vegetable box delivery scheme proclaimed: “Did you know? Switching to organic is the same as adding 2 portions to your 5-A-Day.” Later, at my local health food store, a panel above an organic vegetable display announced that scientific studies had shown this produce was measurably more nutritious than conventional varieties. This assertion has been echoed by dozens of newspaper headlines, radio news pieces and, of course, campaign group websites. If you are an avid follower of the foodie media, it can seem like exciting new studies come along every few months to add to the organic evidence pile. So, amid the fanfare, let’s take a closer look at what the science says, so far. If you know where to look in academic journals, it turns out there is indeed lots of good evidence to suggest that some organically grown crops can be higher in certain vitamins and minerals. The tricky thing is, there are also lots of studies that suggest the exact opposite is the case. The more you delve into the literature, the more confused and conflicted the answer to what seems like a simple question appears to be. There is very good reason for this. Imagine you are a scientist trying to solve this conundrum. You might, for example, buy a range of fruit and vegetables, grown both organically and conventionally, then test these crops for nutrient content and compare the results. After all, this kind of like-for-like comparison most realistically reflects the choices available to consumers, right? But here is the problem: this isn’t a like-for-like comparison at all. The crop varieties grown by organic farmers are often not the same as those grown by conventional ones. As genetics tends to be the principal factor that determines the chemical make-up of a crop, the unique DNA of one variety can result in a very different nutrient profile to another, even if they are grown under the exact same conditions. One head of lettuce might look and taste nearly identical to another variety grown next to it, but their levels of nutrients like vitamin A can vary 20-fold.

7-3-19 Rogue immune cells can infiltrate old brains
Killer T cells may dampen new nerve cell production in aged mice. Immune cells can storm into the brains of older mice, where these normally helpful cells seem to be up to no good. The result, described July 3 in Nature, raises the possibility that immune cells may have a role in aging. Anne Brunet of Stanford University School of Medicine and colleagues studied gene activity to identify all sorts of cells in a particular spot in mice brains — the subventricular zone, where new nerve cells are born. Compared with young mice, old mice had many more killer T cells in that area. These immune system fighters take out damaged or infected cells in the rest of the body, but aren’t usually expected to show up in the brain. Experiments on postmortem human brain tissue suggest that a similar thing happens in old people. T cells were more abundant in tissue from people ages 79 to 93 than in tissue from people ages 20 to 44, the researchers found. In the brains of mice, killer T cells churn out a compound called interferon-gamma. This molecule might be responsible for the falling birthrate of new nerve cells that comes with old age, experiments on mice’s stem cells in dishes suggest. The results come amid a debate over whether human brains continue to make new nerve cells as adults (SN Online: 3/8/2018). If so, then therapies that shut T cells out of the brain might help keep nerve cell production rates high, even into old age — a renewal that might stave off some of the mental decline that comes with aging.

7-3-19 Data can now be stored inside the molecules that power our metabolism
DNA isn’t the only molecule we could use for digital storage. It turns out that liquid solutions containing sugars, amino acids and other small molecules could replace hard drives too. Jacob Rosenstein and his colleagues at Brown University, Rhode Island, stored and retrieved pictures of an Egyptian cat, an ibex and an anchor on an array of these small molecules. They say the approach could make storage that is less vulnerable to hacking, and that could function in more extreme environmental conditions. Inspired by recent research showing that it is possible to store data on DNA, Rosenstein’s team wanted to see if smaller and simpler molecules could also encode abstract information. To test this out they created mixtures of common metabolites – solutions containing sugars, amino acids and other small molecules that humans and other living organisms use to digest food and to carry out other important chemical functions. Their idea was to use the presence or absence of particular metabolites in the mixtures as the binary 1s and 0s that can encode digital information. For instance, to generate the picture of the ibex, the team used mixtures of six different metabolites dotted onto a plate by liquid-handling robots. They produced 1024 dots in total, and within each dot the six metabolites were either absent or present, providing enough binary information to encode the 6142-pixel image. Rosenstein and his colleagues were then able to retrieve the data with around 99 per cent accuracy. They did this by using a mass spectrometer to analyse the chemical mix within each dot. They also made an even higher resolution image of a cat from an Egyptian tomb using mixtures of 12 metabolites.

7-3-19 Every single neuron in an animal mapped out for the first time
A complete map of all the neurons and their connections in both sexes of an animal – a tiny worm – has been described for the first time. A COMPLETE map of all the neurons and their connections in both sexes of an animal has been described for the first time. This “connectome” will not only help us understand how neurons work, but could also improve our understanding of human mental-health problems. The tiny soil-dwelling nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has long been used for research because it has so few neurons. The hermaphrodite version of it, for example, has 302 neurons in its entire nervous system, compared with 86 billion in the human brain alone. A basic map of these 302 neurons was published in the 1980s, when Nobel-prizewinning biologist Sydney Brenner and his colleagues used an electron microscope to examine minute slices of the hermaphrodite worm, which is essentially female but can produce a limited amount of sperm. “It was a very important piece of work, but it was in pieces, it was incomplete, and it didn’t include the male,” says Scott Emmons at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York. Since then, Emmons and his colleagues, and other groups, have used similar approaches to note the connections in parts of the male worm. Now Emmons’s team has captured images of the entire male and analysed new and old images from the hermaphrodite. “Electron micrographs are too complex for a computer to analyse. All of the images were examined by a person,” says Emmons, who has been planning the project since 1999. His team has now been able to describe all of the neurons and their connections in both the male and hermaphrodite worms for the first time. The group has used the data to create a digitised map that shows the neurons’ location and connections, and the strength of those connections (Nature, DOI:10.1038/s41586-019-1352-7).

7-3-19 Why some insect eggs are spherical while others look like hot dogs
A new database is helping scientists test ideas of how the diverse forms have evolved. Look at the nail of your pinky finger. That’s about the width of the biggest known insect egg, which belongs to the earth-borer beetle Bolboleaus hiaticollis. The smallest egg, from the wasp Platygaster vernalis, is only half the width of the thinnest recorded human hair. Insect eggs range across eight orders of magnitude in size, and come in a stunning variety of shapes, a new database of almost 10,500 descriptions of eggs from about 6,700 insect species shows. The Harvard University team behind the database thinks it’s figured out one reason why. In a separate analysis, the researchers determined that where insects lay their eggs — for example, in water or in the bodies of other critters — helps to explain some of the diversity that’s evolved over time. The database and study were both published July 3 in Scientific Data and Nature, respectively. “Eggs provide a wonderful window into the evolutionary and ecological forces involved in animal reproduction,” says Mary Stoddard, an evolutionary biologist at Princeton University not involved in the new work. Stoddard and her colleagues analyzed over 47,000 photos of eggs of 1,400 bird species in a 2017 study, which found a link between a bird’s egg shape and the animal's ability to fly. “Compared with bird eggs, insect eggs are truly wild,” she says. “Some insect eggs are spherical or elliptical, but others resemble arrowheads or hot dogs.” To compile the database of insect eggs, researchers developed computer programs that extracted egg measurements from text and photos in 1,756 digitized publications, and then used the measurements to estimate egg sizes and shapes. Representatives of over 500 families from all insect orders were included.

7-3-19 Ancient DNA reveals that Jews' biblical rivals were from Greece
To call someone a philistine today is to brand them uncultured, but to the Hebrews in the Christian Bible, it meant something worse: the Philistines were a separate group of people who were often their adversaries. Now DNA sequencing of ten Philistine skeletons suggests they really were a genetically distinct community. Around 1200 BC, in at least one key Philistine city there was an influx of south European genes, suggesting a surge of Greek immigrants to the region, says Michal Feldman of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. The Bible’s Old Testament makes numerous references to the Philistines; for instance Goliath, the “giant” who fought David, was a Philistine, as probably was Delilah, said to have betrayed Samson by cutting his hair. Multiple excavations from sites of ancient Philistine cities, such as Ashkelon, on the coast of what is now Israel, have yielded pottery remains that are Greek in style. But some argue that people could simply have adopted Aegean cultural practices via sea trading routes. Feldman’s team tried to extract DNA from 108 skeletal remains excavated from various burial places in Ashkelon that had been dated to either the Bronze Age or Iron Age. Ten produced useful genetic information from their bones or teeth, and this was compared with DNA from other populations all over the world, both ancient and modern. The Ashkelons’ remains could be divided into three time periods. The earliest three individuals found in a necropolis came from about 1600BC, four were infants that had been buried under houses around 1200BC, and three more individuals were from a cemetery by the city wall and came from about 1100BC. The people from the middle period had significant ancestry from southern Europe, with 20 to 60 per cent similarity to DNA from ancient skeletons from Crete and Iberia and that from modern people living in Sardinia, an island off Italy.

7-3-19 Ancient DNA reveals the origins of the Philistines
These mysterious people may have fled collapsing societies in southern Europe for Israel. Hard-won genetic clues from the bones of Philistines, a people known from the Old Testament for their battles with Israelites, have taken some of the mystery out of their hazy origins. DNA extracted from the remains of 10 individuals buried at Ashkelon, an ancient Philistine port city in Israel, displays molecular links to ancient and modern populations in the eastern Mediterranean, archaeogeneticist Michal Feldman and her colleagues report. Ashkelon residents carried that southern European genetic signature between around 3,400 and 3,150 years ago, but it disappeared rapidly as mating increased with locals, the researchers conclude in a paper published online July 3 in Science Advances. Genetic evidence from Ashkelon fits a scenario in which seafaring populations from southern Europe fled collapsing Bronze Age societies more than 3,000 years ago and settled along the eastern Mediterranean coast, where they were dubbed Philistines. Larger ancient DNA studies may help to identify the Philistines’ precise origins, say Feldman, of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, and her colleagues. DNA preserves poorly in hot, dry regions such as the Middle East. The researchers managed to retrieve nuclear DNA, which is inherited from both parents, from 10 skeletons: three Late Bronze Age individuals buried at Ashkelon around 3,600 years ago; four early Iron Age infants interred beneath Ashkelon houses between around 3,400 and 3,150 years ago; and three later Iron Age individuals buried in a large cemetery next to Ashkelon’s city wall roughly 3,100 years ago. Southern European DNA first appeared in the early Iron Age youngsters around the time archaeological finds indicate that Philistines inhabited Ashkelon, but had largely disappeared by the later Iron Age (SN: 12/24/16, p. 8).

7-3-19 Modern forensics solves Stone Age murder mystery after 33,000 years
Researchers have used forensic science to crack one of the oldest cold cases in history – the murder of an early modern human who lived in Europe more than 30,000 years ago. The skull of Cioclovina man has long been mysterious. It was discovered during the second world war, in 1941, by miners searching for phosphate in a cave in Transylvania, Romania. Dated at 33,0000 years old, Cioclovina is one of the oldest, relatively complete skulls so far found of an early modern human living in Europe in the Upper Palaeolithic period. Curiously, the scientists who first described the skull made no mention of two extensive fractures on its right side, and despite publishing good quality photographs of the rest of the cranium, they included only blurry photos of the side with the fractures. Researchers have debated the cause of the fractures in the decades since: were they from the explosions used to mine the cave? From mishandling the specimen? Did the cave collapse on Cioclovina man and kill him? Or was he murdered? Forensic scientist Elena Kranioti at the University of Crete and her colleagues decided to apply modern forensic techniques to untangle the mystery. Using CT scans, they discovered that there were no signs of healing around the fractures, ruling out the possibility that Cioclovina man had been injured and then recovered. Then they looked for signs of when the bones were broken. Kranioti knew that if the skull was damaged long after Cioclovina man had died, the fractures would be in random patterns and be square-shaped with sharp edges, because old and dry bone breaks differently from ‘living’ bone. Instead, the team found classic signs that the damage happened around the time of death. The fracture lines migrated towards the structurally weaker areas of the skull, and bone flakes flecked inward – indicating the injury occurred while there was still soft brain tissue in the skull.

7-3-19 The time paradox: How your brain creates the fourth dimension
We all feel the passing of time, but nothing in physics suggests it is a fundamental property of the universe. So where does our sense of time’s flow come from? SOME time ago, students at the University of Tennessee were handed an unusual assignment. Imagine yourself as a Lilliputian, they were told, as they stared at a miniature model of their communal lounge, complete with furniture and figurines. The students were asked to put themselves in the little people’s shoes, relaxing on the tiny chairs with minuscule cups of coffee. Then they had to say when they felt 30 minutes had passed. For the notionally shrunken students, time flew. Their estimates fell well short of clock time. Even more curiously, the acceleration in their felt time was proportional to the scale of the model lounges in which they were immersed. This bizarre result, reported in Science in 1981, is occasionally invoked by neuroscientists to suggest that space and time are folded together in the brain as they are in the universe. It is also one of many intriguing demonstrations of how malleable our perception of time is – and how mysterious. Time’s passage is perhaps the most fundamental feature of our experience, and yet modern physics can’t decide if it is a fundamental property of the universe. So what is time, and why it does it flow? How come it seems to slow and surge? And what, if anything, does the time we experience have to do with the time defined by the laws of nature? The search for answers takes us into the strange borderlands between neuroscience and physics – a foggy, treacherous place that exposes the limits of our ability to see reality as it really is, forcing us to confront the idea that time is all in the mind. It all made sense for Isaac Newton, whose classical laws of motion played out against the metronomic tick-tock of some “master clock” outside the universe. “All motions may be accelerated and retarded, but the flowing of absolute time is not liable to any change,” he declared. Time is the same, everywhere. Alas, absolute time fell apart in the wake of Albert Einstein’s theories of relativity. They revealed that space and time are unified as four-dimensional space-time, a medium that is warped by both gravity and motion so that no two observers can ever agree on what happened when. Past, present and future are a matter of perspective, not something universal. Hence Einstein insisted that the flow of time is a “stubbornly persistent illusion”, and many physicists today maintain that there is no such thing as an objective “now”.

7-3-19 East Asians may have been reshaping their skulls 12,000 years ago
Fossils expand the known distribution of the ancient practice beyond Europe and Central Asia. Ancient tombs in China have produced what may be some of the oldest known human skulls to be intentionally reshaped. At a site called Houtaomuga, scientists unearthed 25 skeletons dating to between around 12,000 years ago and 5,000 years ago. Of those, 11 featured skulls with artificially elongated braincases and flattened bones at the front and back of the head, says a team led by bioarchaeologist Quanchao Zhang and paleoanthropologist Qian Wang. Skull modification occurred over a longer stretch of time at the site than at any other archaeological dig, the researchers report online June 25 in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Permanent reshaping of a skull early in life, when cranial bones are soft, can be achieved by compressing an infant’s head with one’s hands. Binding the head with hard, flat surfaces such as boards or tightly wrapping the head in cloth similarly remodels immature cranial bones. Specific head modifications may have been used as signs of social status. Oddly shaped, intentionally modified skulls have been found in many parts of the world. Claims from the 1980s that two roughly 45,000-year-old Neandertal skulls had been reshaped early in life have been dismissed by many researchers. The earliest skulls with generally accepted signs of cranial modification date to between around 13,000 and 10,000 years ago in western Asia, southeastern Australia and now, East Asia. In the Americas, this practice began more than 8,000 years ago (SN Online: 2/13/18). “It is too early to tell whether intentional cranial modification first emerged in East Asia and spread elsewhere or originated independently in different places,” says Wang, of Texas A&M University in Dallas.

7-2-19 Your Boss Could Be Bad -- or Good -- for Your Heart
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) currently kills more Americans each year and costs more than any other disease, including Alzheimer's and diabetes. Over the next decade, the situation will only get worse: By 2030, the prevalence of CVD among those aged 20 and older is projected to top 40%, and direct medical costs are expected to triple to more than $800 billion. A recent study published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health -- based on data drawn from Gallup surveys of more than 412,000 full-time workers in the U.S. between 2010 and 2012 -- suggests that workplace supervisors could be part of the solution to this deadly and costly problem. A number of previous studies have established links between workplace stress and CVD risk factors. But because trust is such an important part of social capital, particularly in the workplace, the authors of this study chose to examine the associations between trust at work and seven CVD risk factors: smoking, obesity, low physical activity, poor diet, diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. The authors adjusted the regression models for demographic characteristics with each of the seven risk factors as dependent variables. As their independent trust variable, the researchers used a work environment question that asked: "Does your supervisor always create an environment that is trusting and open, or not?" Twenty-one percent of all U.S. workers surveyed answered "no." For both women and men, the highest prevalence of mistrust was among workers aged 45 to 64 (women, 24.4%; men, 23.0%), followed by those in the 30 to 44 age group (women, 22.3%; men, 20.5%). Overall, the authors found that trust was associated with increased adjusted odds of having many of the seven CVD factors. Among those workers whose supervisor created a mistrustful environment (those who answered "no" to the question), the odds ratios were the greatest (more than 20%) for having four or more of the seven risk factors. After the authors adjusted for demographic factors and whether respondents had health insurance, they found that trust was associated with seven CVD risk factors among both women and men in the sample.

7-2-19 Have mice really been cured of HIV using CRISPR gene editing?
What have researchers achieved? The claim is they have eliminated HIV from living animals for the first time, by cutting it out of its hiding places in the body – in other words, that they have cured the animals. 1. How did they do it? They used a gene-editing system called CRISPR, which is seen as a highly promising – yet still experimental – medical strategy. Unlike early forms of gene therapy, CRISPR allows precise targeting of specific genes. In this case, mice infected with HIV were injected with a different harmless virus that made a version of the CRISPR enzyme programmed to destroy HIV genes hiding in the mouse cells’ DNA. 2. Why would HIV be in the mouse cells’ DNA? That’s where the virus hides out. While we have very effective medicines, called antiretroviral therapy (ART) which can get rid of most HIV from the body, it cannot affect cells where HIV has inserted itself into the DNA and gone dormant. If people stop taking their ART medicines, some of this dormant viral DNA wakes up, and blood virus levels surge back up again. So any hope of a permanent cure requires getting rid of this reservoir of virus-infected cells, found all over the body, including in the bone marrow, brain, and lymph nodes. 3. Can CRISPR do that? Not by itself, no. “The viruses are replicating so fast that CRISPR can’t catch up,” says Kamel Khalili of Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. So his team used a two-pronged strategy of hitting the virus with both CRISPR and a highly potent form of the normal ART meds. The drug molecules were chemically tweaked to make them fat-soluble yet encased in a water-soluble molecular cage. This means just one injection into a mouse’s blood sends the drugs into immune cells where the active molecule is slowly released over time.

7-2-19 California’s new vaccine rules kept more kindergartners up-to-date
The rate of those children behind on required vaccinations dropped to 4.9 percent in 2017. More kindergartners in California were up-to-date on their vaccinations in 2017, following three statewide policies, scientists say. Two stricter laws on vaccine exemptions and a school admission policy, enacted from 2014 to 2016, were associated with a decrease in the rate of kindergartners who were behind on required vaccinations for nine diseases including measles, mumps, pertussis and chicken pox. The rate, which had increased from 7.8 percent in 2000 to 9.8 percent in 2013, dropped to 4.9 percent in 2017, researchers report online July 2 in JAMA. “The study illustrates that stricter immunization laws improve vaccination rates,” says Jana Shaw, a pediatric infectious disease specialist at the State University of New York Upstate Medical University in Syracuse not involved in the research. Other states can learn from California’s experience, she says, “and adopt laws that would protect children at schools from vaccine-preventable diseases.” States can allow children to forgo vaccines for medical reasons or religious or personal beliefs, although which exemptions are permitted depends on the state. A law making it harder to obtain a vaccine exemption based on personal beliefs took effect in California in 2014. Two years later, another law got rid of personal-belief exemptions altogether. And in 2015, the state’s department of health tightened requirements for allowing children who are behind on their immunizations to begin school. To examine the effect of the three initiatives, researchers analyzed school-entry data for more than 9 million California children from 2000 to 2017. Along with the drop in the rate of kindergartners not caught up on required vaccinations, the chance of two kindergartners behind on vaccinations coming into contact with each other at school fell from 26 percent in 2014 to 4.6 percent in 2017.

7-2-19 A tiny jellyfish robot could swim inside the bladder to deliver drugs
A tiny jellyfish-like robot could one day swim through the body to deliver drugs to the right location. Metin Sitti and colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems in Germany designed a robotic jellyfish that can swim, burrow and transport objects. It is 3 millimetres in diameter, roughly the size of a baby jellyfish. It consists of a central body and eight bendable flaps that can beat upwards and downwards in unison. They beat roughly 150 times per minute, also similar to that of baby jellyfish, and are extended by flippers that help the robot propel through water. For buoyancy, the robot’s body contains a small air bubble. Each of its flaps is made of silicone rubber that has been embedded with magnetic microparticles of neodymium-iron-boron. By applying magnetic fields in different directions and at different speeds, the team can steer the robot and changes its behaviour. For example, the robot can burrow into a pile of beads, or use its flaps to pull small beads of different sizes underneath its body and transport them with it as it swims. One potential application is to use these tiny swimmers to carry drugs to certain parts of the body, says Setti. The bots could be delivered via a catheter to a tumour in the bladder, for example. The robots could be made of materials that degrade naturally in the body after several months and can be excreted, says Setti. However, there may be cheaper and easier alternatives to the technology.

7-2-19 This brain region may be why some robots send chills down your spine
The ‘uncanny valley’ effect is an unsettled sensation caused by bots that are too humanlike. A new analysis of brain scans may explain why hyperrealistic androids and animated characters can be creepy. By measuring people’s neural activity as they viewed pictures of humans and robots, researchers identified a region of the brain that seems to underlie the “uncanny valley” effect — the unsettling sensation sometimes caused by robots or animations that look almost, but not quite, human (SN Online: 11/22/13). Better understanding the neural circuitry that causes this feeling may help designers create less unnerving androids. In research described online July 1 in the Journal of Neuroscience, neuroscientist Fabian Grabenhorst and colleagues took functional MRI scans of 21 volunteers during two activities. In each activity, participants viewed pictures of humans, humanoid robots of varying realism and — to simulate the appearance of hyperrealistic robots — “artificial humans,” pictures of people whose features were slightly distorted through plastic surgery and photo editing. In the first activity, participants rated each picture on likability and how humanlike the figures appeared. Next, participants chose between pairs of these pictures, based on which subject they would rather receive a gift from. In line with the uncanny valley effect, participants generally rated more humanlike candidates as more likable, but this trend broke down for artificial humans — the most humanlike of the nonhuman options. A similar uncanny valley trend emerged in participants’ judgments about which figures were more trustworthy gift-givers. Brain scans revealed that activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, or VMPFC — a region involved in making value judgments — mirrored participants’ uncanny valley reactions. VMPFC activity was typically higher in response to more humanlike pictures, but dipped in response to artificial humans. That drop was most pronounced in people with the strongest dislike for artificial humans. Those findings suggest that this region of the brain underpins the uncanny valley sensation, the researchers say.

7-1-19 Vision cells can pull double duty in the brain, detecting both color and shape
A study in monkeys finds many neurons fire in response to more than one aspect of an object Some nerve cells in the brain are multitaskers, responding to both color and shape, a survey of over 4,000 neurons in the visual systems of macaque monkeys finds. The finding, described in the June 28 Science, counters earlier ideas that vision cells nestled in the back of the brain each handle information about only one aspect of sight: an object’s color or its orientation, an element of shape. Some scientists had thought that those aspects were then put together by other brain cells in later stages of visual processing to form a more complete picture of the world. In the new experiment, four macaques looked at a series of sights made of moving lines on a screen. Each time, the lines were one of 12 possible colors and moved at particular angles, creating an effect similar to a spinning candy cane in two dimensions. Using genetic tricks that made nerve cells glow when active, the researchers watched for action among the monkeys’ cells in an area of the brain that handles vision. Called V1, this stretch at the back of the brain is one of the first areas to interpret sight signals. Most of the cells that had a favorite color, indicated by their activity, also had a favorite orientation of lines, the researchers found. “Thus, textbook models of primate V1 must be updated,” the team writes.

7-1-19 ‘Slime’ shows how algae have shaped our climate, evolution and daily lives
A new book will have you looking at pond scum in a whole new light. A slew of popular-science books have set out to convince readers that some overlooked, obscure or generally disdained category of thing is actually wildly important, whether it’s salt, garbage or beavers (SN: 8/4/18, p. 28). Slime, all about algae, is one of those books. If you’re skeptical that algae can sustain such an argument, you’ll be surprised. Science writer Ruth Kassinger, an author of two books about plants, has found in algae an undervalued topic truly worthy of closer attention. These slimy organisms have shaped Earth for billions of years and continue to float into and out of our lives in myriad ways. Kassinger visits farmers, foodies, factories and fuel producers that are all dependent on algae. She weaves their stories into a picture of how algae serve not only as a base in the ocean’s food chain, but also as a rich source of useful molecules that people have only begun to harvest. As for what precisely algae are, though, that’s a bit more difficult to say. While the word may conjure up a uniform film of bright green pond scum, the term has encompassed organisms ranging from cyanobacteria (once known as blue-green algae but now considered bacteria) and microalgae (in a rainbow of colors and more than 50,000 species) to seaweed that can tower as tall as a giant sequoia. Once classified as plants, algae are now known to be a grab bag of species defined as much by what they are not as by what they are. They’re not a true taxonomic group, like cats or fungi; they have no one common ancestor. Algae can’t even be defined as photosynthetic, since some have lost that ability. It’s this diversity that makes algae so important. Kassinger begins her book with the story of cyanobacteria, bacteria that around 3.7 billion years ago were the first to harness the sun’s energy using a new form of photosynthesis. This radical invention added oxygen to Earth’s atmosphere and allowed life to proliferate. From there, Kassinger traces the evolution of multicellular life and the spread of algae onto land, where they partnered with fungi to form lichens. She shows how algae’s diversification in the sea led to today’s phytoplankton, corals and seaweed.

76 Evolution News Articles
for July 2019

Evolution News Articles for June 2019